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Concept: Positioning system


Use of Global positioning system (GPS) technology in team sport permits measurement of player position, velocity, and movement patterns. GPS provides scope for better understanding of the specific and positional physiological demands of team sport and can be used to design training programs that adequately prepare athletes for competition with the aim of optimizing on-field performance.

Concepts: Global Positioning System, Global navigation satellite system, GPS, Positioning system


The purpose of this study was to examine the match activity profile of U9 and U10 elite soccer players and to establish if there were any differences between players who were subsequently retained or released by their clubs. Such information should prove valuable in the design of training programs for these very young players and in the talent identification and development process. A Global Positioning System was used to analyze 2-4 inter-academy 6-a-side matches of English Premier League Academy players (U9: N = 22 and U10: N = 12) who trained three times a week (4.5 h) . Speed zones were created based on 5 and 10 m sprint times and an independent sample t-test was employed for a statistical analysis.Both squads covered ∼4000 m in total or ∼4700 m·h during a match (NS between squads), with the U10s tending to cover a greater distance at moderate (p = 0.10) and high speeds (p = 0.08) than the U9s. Retained group covered a greater distance than released group (retained vs. released: 4478 ± 513 m vs. 4091 ± 462 m, p < 0.05) during a match and covered a greater distance during low speed running in absolute (1226 ± 259 m vs. 1005 ± 221 m, p < 0.05) and relative (1325 ± 235 m[BULLET OPERATOR]h vs. 1132 ± 210 m[BULLET OPERATOR]h, p < 0.05) terms.Thus, U9 and U10 players cover over 4000 m in match play and those players who are retained by academies cover a greater distance in total and at low speeds (2.1-3.1 m·s). This information may support the preparation of squad training programs and the talent identification and development process.

Concepts: Student's t-test, Premier League, Global Positioning System, Roman numerals, Global navigation satellite system, Positioning system, 1001, Nautical mile


Conflicts of interest about where to go and what to do are a primary challenge of group living. However, it remains unclear how consensus is achieved in stable groups with stratified social relationships. Tracking wild baboons with a high-resolution global positioning system and analyzing their movements relative to one another reveals that a process of shared decision-making governs baboon movement. Rather than preferentially following dominant individuals, baboons are more likely to follow when multiple initiators agree. When conflicts arise over the direction of movement, baboons choose one direction over the other when the angle between them is large, but they compromise if it is not. These results are consistent with models of collective motion, suggesting that democratic collective action emerging from simple rules is widespread, even in complex, socially stratified societies.

Concepts: Sociology, Navigation, Global Positioning System, Society, Baboon, Global navigation satellite system, Positioning system, Radio navigation


This study examined whether motor-related participation could be assessed by global positioning systems in individuals with cerebral palsy. Global positioning systems monitoring devices were given to 2 adolescent girls (14-year-old with diplegic cerebral palsy and her 15-year-old healthy sister). Outcome measures were traveling distances, time spent outdoors, and Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment questionnaires. Global positioning systems documented that the girl with cerebral palsy did not visit nearby friends, spent less time outdoors and traveled shorter distances than her sister (P = .02). Participation questionnaire corroborated that the girl with cerebral palsy performed most activities at home alone. Lower outdoor activity of the girl with cerebral palsy measured by a global positioning system was 29% to 53% of that of her sibling similar to participation questionnaires (44%). Global positioning devices objectively documented low outdoor activity in an adolescent with cerebral palsy compared to her sibling reflecting participation reported by validated questionnaires. Global positioning systems can potentially quantify certain aspects of participation.

Concepts: Navigation, Cerebral palsy, Global Positioning System, Global navigation satellite system, GPS, Positioning system


The main global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) technique currently used for accurate time and frequency transfer is based on an analysis of the ionosphere-free combinations of dual-frequency code and carrier phase measurements in a precise point positioning (PPP) mode. This technique analyses the observations of one GNSS station using external products for satellite clocks and orbits to determine the position and clock synchronization errors of this station. The frequency stability of this time transfer is limited by the noise and multipath of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) codes. In the near future, Galileo will offer a broadband signal E5, with low noise in the centimeter range and with the lowest multipath error ever observed. This paper investigates new analysis procedures based on the E5 codeplus- carrier (CPC) combination for time transfer. The CPC combination with E5 provides a noise level 10 times lower than the ionosphere-free combination of Galileo E1 and E5, which is very promising for improving GNSS time transfer performances. From some tests with simulated Galileo data, it is shown here that the use of the CPC combination with E5 does not improve, at present, the medium- and long-term stability of time transfer with respect to the ionosphere-free combination of Galileo E1 and E5 codes, because of the need for a second frequency signal to correct for the ionospheric delays and ambiguities.

Concepts: European Union, Navigation, Global Positioning System, Global navigation satellite system, GPS, Positioning system, Atomic clock, Satellite navigation systems


To analyze the match running profile, distance travelled over successive 15 minutes of match-play, heart rates and effindex of professional soccer players with Global Positioning System (GPS) and heart rate (HR) in official competition.

Concepts: Navigation, Global Positioning System, Global navigation satellite system, GPS, Positioning system, Wide Area Augmentation System, Navigational equipment


Twitter provides various types of location data, including exact Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates, which could be used for infoveillance and infodemiology (ie, the study and monitoring of online health information), health communication, and interventions. Despite its potential, Twitter location information is not well understood or well documented, limiting its public health utility.

Concepts: Global Positioning System, Global navigation satellite system, GPS, Positioning system


Today, runners use wearable technology such as global positioning system (GPS)-enabled sport watches to track and optimize their training activities, for example, when participating in a road race event. For this purpose, an increasing amount of low-priced, consumer-oriented wearable devices are available. However, the variety of such devices is overwhelming. It is unclear which devices are used by active, healthy citizens and whether they can provide accurate tracking results in a diverse study population. No published literature has yet assessed the dissemination of wearable technology in such a cohort and related influencing factors.

Concepts: General relativity, Navigation, Global Positioning System, Global navigation satellite system, GPS, Positioning system, Speed of light, Radio navigation


Research in psychology demonstrates a strong link between state affect (moment-to-moment experiences of positive or negative emotionality) and trait affect (eg, relatively enduring depression and social anxiety symptoms), and a tendency to withdraw (eg, spending time at home). However, existing work is based almost exclusively on static, self-reported descriptions of emotions and behavior that limit generalizability. Despite adoption of increasingly sophisticated research designs and technology (eg, mobile sensing using a global positioning system [GPS]), little research has integrated these seemingly disparate forms of data to improve understanding of how emotional experiences in everyday life are associated with time spent at home, and whether this is influenced by depression or social anxiety symptoms.

Concepts: Psychology, Emotion, Bluetooth, Global Positioning System, Global navigation satellite system, GPS, Positioning system, Geodesy


This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of global (GPS) and local (LPS) positioning systems for measuring distances covered and sprint mechanical properties in team sports. Here, we evaluated two recently released 18 Hz GPS and 20 Hz LPS technologies together with one established 10 Hz GPS technology. Six male athletes (age: 27±2 years; VO2max: 48.8±4.7 ml/min/kg) performed outdoors on 10 trials of a team sport-specific circuit that was equipped with double-light timing gates. The circuit included various walking, jogging, and sprinting sections that were performed either in straight-lines or with changes of direction. During the circuit, athletes wore two devices of each positioning system. From the reported and filtered velocity data, the distances covered and sprint mechanical properties (i.e., the theoretical maximal horizontal velocity, force, and power output) were computed. The sprint mechanical properties were modeled via an inverse dynamic approach applied to the center of mass. The validity was determined by comparing the measured and criterion data via the typical error of estimate (TEE), whereas the reliability was examined by comparing the two devices of each technology (i.e., the between-device reliability) via the coefficient of variation (CV). Outliers due to measurement errors were statistically identified and excluded from validity and reliability analyses. The 18 Hz GPS showed better validity and reliability for determining the distances covered (TEE: 1.6-8.0%; CV: 1.1-5.1%) and sprint mechanical properties (TEE: 4.5-14.3%; CV: 3.1-7.5%) than the 10 Hz GPS (TEE: 3.0-12.9%; CV: 2.5-13.0% and TEE: 4.1-23.1%; CV: 3.3-20.0%). However, the 20 Hz LPS demonstrated superior validity and reliability overall (TEE: 1.0-6.0%; CV: 0.7-5.0% and TEE: 2.1-9.2%; CV: 1.6-7.3%). For the 10 Hz GPS, 18 Hz GPS, and 20 Hz LPS, the relative loss of data sets due to measurement errors was 10.0%, 20.0%, and 15.8%, respectively. This study shows that 18 Hz GPS has enhanced validity and reliability for determining movement patterns in team sports compared to 10 Hz GPS, whereas 20 Hz LPS had superior validity and reliability overall. However, compared to 10 Hz GPS, 18 Hz GPS and 20 Hz LPS technologies had more outliers due to measurement errors, which limits their practical applications at this time.

Concepts: Measurement, Psychometrics, Error, Navigation, Global Positioning System, Global navigation satellite system, GPS, Positioning system