Concept: Portuguese language
The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) assesses the importance that subjects attribute to nine factors related to food choices: health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity and ethical concern. This study sought to assess the applicability of the FCQ in Brazil; it describes the translation and cultural adaptation from English into Portuguese of the FCQ via the following steps: independent translations, consensus, back-translation, evaluation by a committee of experts, semantic validation and pre-test. The pre-test was run with a randomly sampled group of 86 male and female college students from different courses with a median age of 19. Slight differences between the versions were observed and adjustments were made. After minor changes in the translation process, the committee of experts considered that the Brazilian Portuguese version was semantically and conceptually equivalent to the English original. Semantic validation showed that the questionnaire is easily understood. The instrument presented a high degree of internal consistency. The study is the first stage in the process of validating an instrument, which consists of face and content validity. Further stages, already underway, are needed before other researchers can use it.
The Zika virus (ZIKV) has rapidly reached epidemic proportions, especially in northeastern Brazil, and has rapidly spread to other parts of the Americas. A recent increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in newborn infants and vision-threatening findings in these infants is likely associated with the rapid spread of ZIKV.
This study examined trends in adolescent weekly alcohol use between 2002 and 2010 in 28 European and North American countries.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is widely acknowledged as a global problem, yet in many parts of the world its magnitude is still not well understood. This review, using a public health focused approach, aimed to understand and describe the current status of AMR in Africa in relation to common causes of infections and drugs recommended in WHO treatment guidelines.
Over the last 150 years, a little South American fish with alleged unsavory habits has become the stuff legends are made of. With growing visitor numbers to the Amazon basin, the question of whether the animal poses a threat to the many travelers to the region arises.
Ninety-five specimens from 13 species of lizard collected during a herpetofaunal monitoring programme of the Faxinal II power plant, municipality of Aripuanã, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (southern Amazon region) were examined for helminths. A total of 21 helminth species (16 Nematoda, 1 Cestoda and 4 Trematoda) were recovered, with an overall prevalence of 67.37%. Seventeen new host records and seven new locality records are reported. A low number of specialists and core helminth species were found. Lizard body size was positively correlated with both the total number of helminth species and individuals. Active foragers exhibited higher helminth diversity. However, sit-and-wait foragers, especially Plica plica, had similar diversity values as active foragers and harboured more helminth species. The degree of similarity in helminth fauna was higher among closely related host species.
A genetic analysis of partial sequences of the mitochondrial 16S and 12S rDNA genes of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato collected in the Southern Cone of South America was carried out. Also, sequences of ticks belonging to this taxon from Europe, Africa and other South American localities were included. TCS networks constructed with 16S rDNA sequences showed two clusters of haplotypes, namely, Southern lineage (ST) and Northern lineage (NT). Haplotypes representing the specimens coming from localities of Argentina, Uruguay and Chile were included in the ST lineage, while haplotypes from Brazil, Paraguay, Colombia, South Africa, Mozambique and from two localities of Northern Argentina were grouped in the NT lineage. The phylogenetic trees obtained with both 16S and 12S sequences showed two distinct clades, one containing R. sanguineus s.l from Argentina, Uruguay, Chile (ST lineage) and Western Europe (Italy and France), and a second clade including R. sanguineus s.l from Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, Colombia (NT lineage), South Africa and Mozambique. The results herein reported revealed that the taxon R. sanguineus s.l is represented by two lineages in the Southern Cone of South America. According with the genetic comparative analysis, NT lineage and the ticks from Mozambique and South Africa represent a species that is not R. sanguineus s.s, while R. sanguineus s.l ticks from Western Europe and Southern South America (ST lineage) probably represent true R. sanguineus, because the type locality of R. sanguineus s.s is located in France. The taxonomic issue described for R. sanguineus s.l in the South America has epidemiological implications. Difference in the vectorial competence for Ehrlichia canis between the two lineages of R. sanguineus s.l was found in previous works. Further investigations are needed in order to verify a possible different vectorial competence for the other pathogens transmitted by these ticks.
The present histological study of adult female common smoothhound shark Mustelus mustelus demonstrates that the species can store sperm in their oviducal glands. In addition, single paternity of a litter of 22 pups is reported, contributing to further knowledge regarding the genetic and behavioural mating strategy of M. mustelus.
Transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas was first confirmed in May 2015 in northeast Brazil. Brazil has had the highest number of reported ZIKV cases worldwide (more than 200,000 by 24 December 2016) and the most cases associated with microcephaly and other birth defects (2,366 confirmed by 31 December 2016). Since the initial detection of ZIKV in Brazil, more than 45 countries in the Americas have reported local ZIKV transmission, with 24 of these reporting severe ZIKV-associated disease. However, the origin and epidemic history of ZIKV in Brazil and the Americas remain poorly understood, despite the value of this information for interpreting observed trends in reported microcephaly. Here we address this issue by generating 54 complete or partial ZIKV genomes, mostly from Brazil, and reporting data generated by a mobile genomics laboratory that travelled across northeast Brazil in 2016. One sequence represents the earliest confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Analyses of viral genomes with ecological and epidemiological data yield an estimate that ZIKV was present in northeast Brazil by February 2014 and is likely to have disseminated from there, nationally and internationally, before the first detection of ZIKV in the Americas. Estimated dates for the international spread of ZIKV from Brazil indicate the duration of pre-detection cryptic transmission in recipient regions. The role of northeast Brazil in the establishment of ZIKV in the Americas is further supported by geographic analysis of ZIKV transmission potential and by estimates of the basic reproduction number of the virus.
The worldwide expansion of new emergent arboviruses such as Chikungunya and Zika reinforces the importance in understanding the role of mosquito species in spreading these pathogens in affected regions. This knowledge is essential for developing effective programs based on species specificity to avoid the establishment of endemic transmission cycles sustained by the identified local vectors. Although the first autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus was described in 2014 in the north of Brazil, the main outbreaks were reported in 2015 and 2016 in the northeast of Brazil.