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Concept: Physicians


Primary care physicians spend nearly 2 hours on electronic health record (EHR) tasks per hour of direct patient care. Demand for non-face-to-face care, such as communication through a patient portal and administrative tasks, is increasing and contributing to burnout. The goal of this study was to assess time allocated by primary care physicians within the EHR as indicated by EHR user-event log data, both during clinic hours (defined as 8:00 am to 6:00 pm Monday through Friday) and outside clinic hours.

Concepts: Medicine, Patient, Hospital, Physician, Doctor-patient relationship, Pediatrics, Electronic health record, Physicians


Primary care panel sizes are an important component of primary care practices. Determining the appropriate panel size has implications for patient access, physician workload, and care comprehensiveness and will have an impact on quality of care. An often quoted standard panel size is 2500. However, this number seems to arise in the literature anecdotally, without a basis in research. Subsequently, multiple studies observed that a panel size of 2500 is not feasible because of time constraints and results in incomplete preventive care and health care screening services. In this article we review the origins of a panel size of 2500, review the subsequent work examining this number and effectively debunking it as a feasible panel size, and discuss the importance of primary care physicians setting an appropriate panel size.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Public health, Physician, Pediatrics, General practitioner, Physicians, Primary care physician


To examine whether peppy comments from attending physicians increased the workload of residents working in the emergency department (ED).

Concepts: Hospital, Randomized controlled trial, Residency, Physicians, Dublin


Policy makers and analysts have been voicing concerns about the increasing concentration of health care providers and health insurers in markets nationwide, including the potential adverse effect on the cost and quality of health care. The Council of Economic Advisers recently expressed its concern about the lack of estimates of market concentration in many sectors of the US economy. To address this gap in health care, this study analyzed market concentration trends in the United States from 2010 to 2016 for hospitals, physician organizations, and health insurers. Hospital and physician organization markets became increasingly concentrated over this time period. Concentration among primary care physicians increased the most, partially because hospitals and health care systems acquired primary care physician organizations. In 2016, 90 percent of Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) were highly concentrated for hospitals, 65 percent for specialist physicians, 39 percent for primary care physicians, and 57 percent for insurers. Ninety-one percent of the 346 MSAs analyzed may have warranted concern and scrutiny because of their concentration levels in 2016 and changes in their concentrations since 2010. Public policies that enhance competition are needed, such as stricter enforcement of antitrust laws, reducing barriers to entry, and restricting anticompetitive behaviors.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Health insurance, United States, Concentration, Economics, Pediatrics, Physicians


To explore medical students' experiences working with frequently rotating pediatric inpatient attending physicians.

Concepts: Medicine, Physician, Pediatrics, Medical school, Specialty, Residency, Physicians


This study explored the perceived interest in development of private genetic counseling services in collaboration with primary care physicians in the Australasian setting by online survey of members of the Australasian Society of Genetic Counselors. Four hypothetical private practice models of professional collaboration between genetic counselors and primary care physicians or clinical geneticists were proposed to gauge interest and enthusiasm of ASGC members for this type of professional development. Perceived barriers and facilitators were also evaluated. 78 completed responses were included for analysis. The majority of participants (84.6 %) showed a positive degree of interest and enthusiasm towards potential for clinical work in private practice. All proposed practice models yielded a positive degree of interest from participants. Model 4 (the only model of collaboration with a clinical geneticist rather than primary care physician) was the clearly preferred option (mean = 4.26/5), followed by Model 2 (collaboration with a single primary care practice) (mean = 4.09/5), Model 3 (collaboration with multiple primary care clinics, multidisciplinary clinic or specialty clinic) (mean = 3.77/5) and finally, Model 1 (mean = 3.61/5), which was the most independent model of practice. When participants ranked the options in the order of preference, Model 4 remained the most popular first preference (44.6 %), followed by model 2 (21.6 %), model 3 (18.9 %) and model 1 was again least popular (10.8 %). There was no significant statistical correlation between demographic characteristics (age bracket, years of work experience, current level of work autonomy) and participants' preference for private practice models. Support from clinical genetics colleagues and the professional society was highly rated as a facilitator and, conversely, lack of such support as a significant barrier.

Concepts: Genetics, Pediatrics, General practitioner, Primary care, Physicians, Medical genetics, Genetic counseling, Primary care physician


STUDY OBJECTIVE: Emergency departments (EDs) frequently refer patients for needed outpatient specialty care, but little is known about the dynamics of these referrals when patients are publicly insured. Hence, we explored factors, including the role of ED referrals, associated with specialists' willingness to accept patients covered by Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP). METHODS: We conducted semistructured qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of 26 specialists and 14 primary care physicians in Cook County, Illinois, from April to September 2009, until theme saturation was reached. Transcripts and notes were entered into ATLAS.ti and analyzed using an iterative coding process to identify patterns of responses, ensure reliability, examine discrepancies, and achieve consensus through content analysis. RESULTS: Themes that emerged indicate that primary care physicians face considerable barriers getting publicly insured patients into outpatient specialty care and use the ED to facilitate this process. Specialty physicians reported that decisions to refuse or limit the number of patients with Medicaid/CHIP are due to economic strain or direct pressure from their institutions. Factors associated with specialist acceptance of patients with Medicaid/CHIP included high acuity or complexity, personal request from or an informal economic relationship with the primary care physician, geography, and patient hardship. Referral through the ED was a common and expected mechanism for publicly insured patients to access specialty care. CONCLUSION: These exploratory findings suggest that specialists are willing to see children with Medicaid/CHIP if they are referred from an ED. As health systems restructure, EDs have the potential to play a role in improving care coordination and access to outpatient specialty care.

Concepts: Medicine, Hospital, Physician, Pediatrics, Primary care, Physicians, Primary care physician, REFER



Most existing estimates of the shortage of primary care physicians are based on simple ratios, such as one physician for every 2,500 patients. These estimates do not consider the impact of such ratios on patients' ability to get timely access to care. They also do not quantify the impact of changing patient demographics on the demand side and alternative methods of delivering care on the supply side. We used simulation methods to provide estimates of the number of primary care physicians needed, based on a comprehensive analysis considering access, demographics, and changing practice patterns. We show that the implementation of some increasingly popular operational changes in the ways clinicians deliver care-including the use of teams or “pods,” better information technology and sharing of data, and the use of nonphysicians-have the potential to offset completely the increase in demand for physician services while improving access to care, thereby averting a primary care physician shortage.

Concepts: Patient, Hospital, Physician, Doctor-patient relationship, Pediatrics, Primary care, Physicians, Primary care physician


Today’s US physician workforce principally comprises specialists trained in the care of specific chronic conditions in the outpatient setting. However, a majority of patients seeking care for most of 14 high-cost chronic conditions, for example hypertension, were more likely to see a primary care physician than a specialist physician (69% vs. 24%, respectively).

Concepts: Medicine, Physician, Pediatrics, General practitioner, Primary care, Physicians, Primary care physician, Healthcare occupations