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Concept: Physical education


School physical education (PE) has been identified as a critical public health tool to increase physical activity among youths. We sought to objectively assess compliance with PE quantity mandates and quality recommendations in a large urban California school district.

Concepts: Physical education, Educational psychology, Evaluation


Training programs for high school athletes have changed over the last 20 years. High school physical education classes have transformed into sports-specific conditioning classes with intensities matching college or professional athlete programming. In addition, involvement in private, sport-specific, training increased, but despite these advanced training methods, are high school athletes prepared for collegiate sport competition? An anonymous survey was sent to 195 Division I strength and conditioning coaches (SCC) to discern incoming college freshman athletes' physical and psychological preparedness for the rigors of collegiate training and sport competition. Fifty-seven (29%) responses were received. SCC stated incoming college freshman athletes lack lower extremity strength, overall flexibility, and core strength as well as proper Olympic lifting technique. SCC also stated that athletes lacked the mental toughness to endure collegiate sport training in addition to claiming incoming athletes lacked knowledge of correct nutrition and recovery principles. These results suggest a lack of collegiate training/sport preparedness of high school athletes. High school strength and conditioning specialist’s goal is to produce better athletes and doing so requires the strength and conditioning coach/trainer to have knowledge of how to train high school athletes. One way to assure adequate knowledge of strength and conditioning training principles is for high school coaches/trainers to be certified in the field. Strength and conditioning certifications among high school strength and conditioning coaches/trainers would encourage developmentally appropriate training and would provide universities with athletes who are prepared for the rigors of collegiate sport training/competition.

Concepts: Developmentally Appropriate Practice, High School Musical, Higher education, Education, University, Physical education, High school, College


OBJECTIVES: Adolescent mental disorders remain a relatively neglected area of research, despite evidence that these conditions affect youth disproportionately. We examined associations between physical activity, leisure-time screen use and depressive symptoms among Australian children and adolescents. DESIGN: Large cross-sectional observational study. METHODS: Self-reported physical activity and leisure-time screen behaviours, and depressive symptoms using the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire were assessed in 8256 students aged 10-16 years (mean age=11.5 years, SD=0.8). RESULTS: Thirty three percent of the sample reported moderate to high depressive symptoms, with rates higher among females (OR=1.18; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.36; p=0.001). Increased opportunities to be active at school outside class (OR=0.70; 0.58, 0.85; p<0.001), being active in physical education classes (OR=0.77; 0.69, 0.86; p<0.001), greater involvement in sports teams at school (OR=0.77; 0.67, 0.88; p<0.001) and outside of school (OR=0.84; 0.73, 0.96; p=0.01) were all independently associated with lower odds for depressive symptoms. Meeting recommended guidelines for physical activity (OR=0.62; 0.44, 0.88; p=0.007) and, for 12-14 year olds, leisure-time screen use (OR=0.77; 0.59, 0.99; p=0.04) were also independently associated with lower odds for depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of physical activity among children and young adolescents, and lower levels of leisure-time screen use among young adolescents, are associated with lower depressive symptoms. Longitudinal studies are needed to understand the causal relationships between these variables.

Concepts: The Adolescents, Correlation does not imply causation, Observational study, Adolescence, Physical education, Emotion, Longitudinal study, Causality


School-based interventions can reach children and adolescents and aid in reducing the prevalence of childhood obesity. A physical education class that engaged middle school students in a daily 1-mile walk or run and other team sports was developed in a rural school in southwestern Oklahoma with a large American Indian population. Body mass index z scores decreased among boys and were stable among girls in the intervention group compared with students who did not participate in the intervention. A daily required walk or run may help to establish a physical activity habit with all of its associated benefits.

Concepts: Physical education, Childhood, Native Americans in the United States, Middle school, Body shape, Exercise, Body mass index, Obesity


Physical education (PE) programs are evolving from a traditional skill-centered model to a health-centered model that focuses on time engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). However, improvements in muscular fitness and fundamental movement skills are prerequisites for continuous participation in MVPA. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of integrative strength and skill-based training on measures of physical fitness in children during primary school PE. Children from two fourth grade PE classes were cluster randomized into either a fundamental integrative training (FIT) group (n=20) or a control (CON) group (n=21). The 8 week FIT program was performed twice per week during the first ∼15 min of each PE class and consisted of a circuit of strength and skill-based exercises. All participants were assessed for health- and skill-related fitness before and after the intervention. The outcome variables were analyzed via 2x2 repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc analysis. A significant (p≤0.05) interaction of group by time was observed in FIT participants with improvements in aerobic capacity, push-ups, sit and reach flexibility, and single leg hop. There were no group by time effects for the sit-up and long jump tests. No injuries were reported. These findings highlight the potential benefits of integrating both health and skill-related fitness components into primary school PE as evidenced by improvements in measures of aerobic capacity and muscular fitness in children.

Concepts: Physical education, School, Exercise physiology, Physical fitness, Evolution, Physical exercise, Strength training, Exercise


Research supports the positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance by children. However, a limited number of studies have explored the effects specifically on memory. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an acute bout of exercise on learning, short-term memory, and long-term memory in a sample of children. Children were randomly assigned to an exercise condition or to a no-treatment control condition and then performed repeated trials on an auditory verbal learning task. In the exercise condition, participants performed the PACER task, an aerobic fitness assessment, in their physical education class prior to performing the memory task. In the control condition, participants performed the memory task at the beginning of their physical education class. Results showed that participants in the exercise condition demonstrated significantly better learning of the word lists and significantly better recall of the words after a brief delay. There were not significant differences in recognition of the words after an approximately 24-hour delay. These results provide evidence in a school setting that an acute bout of exercise provides benefits for verbal learning and long-term memory. Future research should be designed to identify the extent to which these findings translate to academic measures.

Concepts: Memory, Cognitive psychology, Performance, Psychology, Long-term memory, Short-term memory, Physical education, Exercise


The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge that current and preservice high school (HS) physical educators and sport coaches possess regarding the principles and methods involved in youth resistance training (RT), and determine if that knowledge was acceptable based on a pre-determined criterion (passing score). A panel of 10 experts in RT or sport pedagogy used a Delphi technique to create a 90-question assessment (exam) that was administered to 287 HS physical educators and sport coaches, and 140 university physical education teacher education (PETE) students. An analysis of the results revealed that neither group demonstrated the minimal knowledge necessary to design, implement, and supervise RT programs based upon a passing score of 75%: HS physical educators/coaches, M = 59.30, SD = 14.30, 95% CI [57.64, 60.96], t(286) = -18.61, p = .000; university PETE students, M = 56.61, SD = 16.59, 95% CI [53.84, 59.38], t(139) = -13.12, p = .000. The pass rate for physical educators and sport coaches was 14.3%, and for university PETE students it was 20.7%. The results of this study indicate both current and preservice physical educators and sport coaches need additional education and training specific to the design and implementation of RT programs for high school students. Given that school districts typically require their educators attend in-service training programs, it may be advisable to develop an in-service program that allows both current and preservice HS physical educators and sport coaches to earn an RT certification that specifically addresses the unique physical and psychosocial needs of school-age youth.

Concepts: Design, Teacher, Exercise, Trigraph, School, Physical education, High school, Education


Physical education (PE) teachers may be the first to assist students with asthma attacks during PE class. This study explores the PE teachers' perspectives on in-school asthma management and barriers to physical activity (PA) in children with asthma attending urban elementary schools.

Concepts: Toronto, Primary school, Physical education, History of education, School, Teacher, New York City, Education


To analyze the association between participation and physical activity during Physical Education classes with health outcomes in Brazilian students.

Concepts: Sunshine pop, Exercise, Education, Physical education, The Association


Physical educators may be the responsible people for implementing comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAPs) in schools. However, it is unclear whether physical education teacher education (PETE) programs provide the relevant learning opportunities to preservice teachers for CSPAP implementation. The purpose of this study was to understand preservice teachers' perspectives and experiences of CSPAP preparation in their PETE programs.

Concepts: Exercise, History of education, Physical education, Grammar school, High school, Teacher, School, Education