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Concept: Pharmacotherapy


We performed a systematic review of the literature to compare the efficacy of different drug therapies for the termination of stable, monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT).

Concepts: Medicine, Therapy, Pharmacotherapy, Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals, Ventricular tachycardia, Supraventricular tachycardia, Tachycardia, Therapy?


Tourette syndrome (TS) is a disorder characterised by multiple motor and vocal tics and is frequently associated with behavioural problems. Tics are known to be affected by internal factors such as inner tension and external factors such as the surrounding environment. A number of behavioural treatments have been suggested to treat the symptoms of TS, in addition to pharmacotherapy and surgery for the most severe cases. This review compiled all the studies investigating behavioural therapies for TS, briefly describing each technique and assessing the evidence in order to determine which of these appear to be effective. Different behavioural therapies that were used included habit reversal training (HRT), massed negative practice, supportive psychotherapy, exposure with response prevention, self-monitoring, cognitive-behavioural therapy, relaxation therapy, assertiveness training, contingency management, a tension-reduction technique and biofeedback training. Overall, HRT is the best-studied and most widely-used technique and there is sufficient experimental evidence to suggest that it is an effective treatment. Most of the other treatments, however, require further investigation to evaluate their efficacy. Specifically, evidence suggests that exposure with response prevention and self-monitoring are effective, and more research is needed to determine the therapeutic value of the other treatments. As most of the studies investigating behavioural treatments for TS are small-sample or single-case studies, larger randomised controlled trials are advocated.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Therapy, Pharmacotherapy, Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Psychotherapy, Tourette syndrome, Treatment of Tourette syndrome


Introduction: Bradykinin-mediated angioedema is characterized by subcutaneous and/or submucosal edema formation without wheals and pruritus. It is linked to bradykinin-enhanced vascular permeability and, therefore, it does not respond to conventional measures, but requires specific therapy. Areas covered: This summary briefly reviews the different types of bradykinin-mediated angioedema and its remedies. Therapy focuses on relieving edema, as well as on decreasing its incidence and severity. The modes of the actions of attenuated androgens and antifibrinolytics are not precisely known - these agents have been introduced on an empirical basis. Contemporary treatments, by contrast, have been purposely developed to inhibit bradykinin. Most experience pertains to angioedema resulting from C1-inhibitor deficiency, and the controlled studies have focused on the hereditary form of this disease type (HAE). The pathomechanisms of HAE with normal C1-inhibitor activity, as well as of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-releated, and of non-histaminergic idiopathic sporadic angioedemas are largely unknown. Appropriate laboratory methods for the diagnosis, or specific interventions for the therapy of these conditions are not available or only available off-label. Expert opinion: In this case, diagnosis and management are challenging. The range of targeted therapeutic options has increased in recent years and includes measures to handle emergencies, prevent edematous episodes and manage additional types of bradykinin-mediated angioedema.

Concepts: Allergy, Therapy, Pharmacotherapy, Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals, Angioedema, ACE inhibitor, Edema, Bradykinin


Introduction: Naphthalimides are important aromatic heterocycles with immense pharmacological significance as they serve as core scaffold for many antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, antiprotozoal and antiviral agents, etc. The tricyclic planar ring system of naphthalimide is primarily responsible for its intercalation with DNA to perturb the cellular events and the substitution pattern of the molecule leads to several other applications. The promising pharmacological activity profile and ease of synthesis have been attractive in design and development of new class of naphthalimides and their conjugates as various potential therapeutic agents. Few of such molecules are currently under preclinical and clinical evaluations. Areas covered: Important patents focusing on naphthalimides as potential class of therapeutics, published between the period of 2006 - 2011have been covered. The reports are presented together with a review of the related structural chemical space. This review mainly focuses on the therapeutic applications, structural modifications of naphthalimide scaffold, their conjugates and heterocyclics bearing naphthalimide moiety. Expert opinion: The tricyclic planar ring system of naphthalimide restrains important pharmaceutical properties along with excellent fluorescent after proper substitution pattern. Linking these active naphthalimide derivatives with other active pharmacophore has become an interesting area of research. The utility of naphthalimide derivatives as novel pharmaceutical and photochemical agents can be further enhanced by introducing polar side chains and fusing functionalized heterocyclic rings with naphthalimide cores.

Concepts: DNA, Medicine, Molecule, Chemistry, Atom, Pharmacotherapy, Patent, Heterocyclic compound


BACKGROUND: Rituximab (RTX) has recently showed promising results in the treatment of steroid-dependent idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter study of 18 children treated with RTX for SDNS, with a mean follow-up of 3.2 years. RTX was introduced because of side effects or relapses during therapy with immunosuppressive agents. The children received one to four infusions of RTX during the first course of treatment, and subsequent infusions were given due to CD19-cell recovery (CD19 >1 %; 54 % of children) or relapse (41 %), as well as systematically (5 %). RESULTS: Treatment with RTX maintained sustained remission without relapse in 22 % of patients and increased the duration of remission in all other patients. The time between two successive relapses was 9 months in the absence of re-treatment and 24.5 months when infusions were performed at the time of CD19-cell recovery. At the last follow-up, 44.5 % of patients were free of oral drug therapy. Of those still receiving oral drugs, all doses had been decreased. No serious adverse events occurred. CONCLUSION: The results of this retrospective study confirm the efficacy and very good safety of RTX in the treatment of SDNS. The optimal therapeutic protocol seems to be a repeated single infusion at the time of CD19-cell recovery.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Nephrotic syndrome, Therapy, Pharmacotherapy, Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals, Syndromes, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Nephritic syndrome


Skeletal muscle can be considered a secretory organ that produces myokines and other humoral factors having autocrine-, paracrine-, and endocrine-like signaling effects throughout the body. Exercise has such profound pharmacological and physiological effects that it should be considered a drug therapy. Exercise has documented benefits for preventing or treating many physical and mental disorders or their sequelae, and it has a potential role in managing adverse effects associated with drug therapies. If exercise were a drug evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration, it might be approved for a large number of therapeutic indications. Exercise can be appropriately prescribed for virtually anyone for primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention of many mental and physical disorders. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 53(8), 13-16.].

Concepts: Pharmacology, Medicine, Mental health, Therapy, Pharmacotherapy, Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals, Prevention, Mental disorder


Lung cancer is by far the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Nanoparticle-based therapies enable targeted drug delivery for lung cancer treatment with increased therapeutic efficiency and reduced systemic toxicity. At the same time, nanomedicine has the potential for multimodal treatment of lung cancer that may involve ‘all-in-one’ targeting of several tumor-associated cell types in a timely and spatially controlled manner. Therapeutic approaches, however, are hampered by a translational gap between basic scientists, clinicians and pharma industry due to suboptimal animal models and difficulties in scale-up production of nanoagents. This calls for a disease-centered approach with interdisciplinary basic and clinical research teams with the support of pharma industries.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Pharmacotherapy, Pleural effusion


Vascular anomalies are a morphologically and biologically diverse group of vascular channel abnormalities that are often congenital but may evolve or change over time in the developing child. Classification is based on a combination of physical and biological properties and clinical behavior that differentiate primarily between tumors and malformations and includes a few provisionally unclassified lesions. Anomalies of the GI tract may present clinically with GI bleeding, abdominal pain, high-output cardiac failure, and malabsorption. This review focuses on new therapies for the treatment of GI bleeding. Important new pharmacological therapies include treatment of hemangioma with non-selective and selective beta-antagonist agents, propranolol and atenolol, and treatment of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome and CAT/MLT with sirolimus, an inhibitor of mTOR. Therapeutic endoscopy may offer an effective alternative to bowel resection for colonic varices and other focal vascular anomalies of the GI tract that fail to respond to pharmacological therapy.

Concepts: Medicine, Hypertension, Life, Species, Therapy, Pharmacotherapy, Gastroenterology, Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome


An ever-growing wealth of information on current drugs and their pharmacological effects is available from online databases. As our understanding of systems biology increases, we have the opportunity to predict, model and quantify how drug combinations can be introduced that outperform conventional single-drug therapies. Here, we explore the feasibility of such systems pharmacology approaches with an analysis of the mevalonate branch of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Pharmacology, Medicine, Drug, Therapy, Pharmacotherapy, Pharmaceutical drug, The Opportunity


Intoxication with Amanita phalloides is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment therapies include general support, toxin elimination, pharmacotherapy with agents such as the hepatoprotective agent silibinin, and, in extreme states, liver transplantation. Despite these therapeutic interventions, mortality remains relatively high.

Concepts: Liver, Therapy, Pharmacotherapy, Hepatology, Paracetamol, Hepatic encephalopathy, Liver dialysis, Amanita phalloides