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Concept: Osteogenesis imperfecta

174

Plastin 3 (PLS3), a protein involved in the formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) bundles, appears to be important in human bone health, on the basis of pathogenic variants in PLS3 in five families with X-linked osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures that we report here. The bone-regulatory properties of PLS3 were supported by in vivo analyses in zebrafish. Furthermore, in an additional five families (described in less detail) referred for diagnosis or ruling out of osteogenesis imperfecta type I, a rare variant (rs140121121) in PLS3 was found. This variant was also associated with a risk of fracture among elderly heterozygous women that was two times as high as that among noncarriers, which indicates that genetic variation in PLS3 is a novel etiologic factor involved in common, multifactorial osteoporosis.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone, Genetics, Natural selection, Bone fracture, Fracture, Actin, Osteogenesis imperfecta

149

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a congenital disorder characterized by increased bone fragility and low bone mass.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Genetics, Natural selection, Genotype, Skeletal system, Phenotype, Genotype-phenotype distinction, Osteogenesis imperfecta

29

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogenous group of genetic disorders of bone fragility. OI type V is an autosomal-dominant disease characterized by calcification of the forearm interosseous membrane, radial head dislocation, a subphyseal metaphyseal radiodense line, and hyperplastic callus formation; the causative mutation involved in this disease has not been discovered yet. Using linkage analysis in a four-generation family and whole-exome sequencing, we identified a heterozygous mutation of c.-14C>T in the 5'-untranslated region of a gene encoding interferon-induced transmembrane protein 5 (IFITM5). It completely cosegregated with the disease in three families and occurred de novo in five simplex individuals. Transfection of wild-type and mutant IFITM5 constructs revealed that the mutation added five amino acids (Met-Ala-Leu-Glu-Pro) to the N terminus of IFITM5. Given that IFITM5 expression and protein localization is restricted to the skeletal tissue and IFITM5 involvement in bone formation, we conclude that this recurrent mutation would have a specific effect on IFITM5 function and thus cause OI type V.

Concepts: Protein, Gene, Genetics, Amino acid, Cell membrane, Skeletal system, Intramembranous ossification, Osteogenesis imperfecta

28

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited disorder characterized by increased bone fragility with recurrent fractures that leads to skeletal deformities in severe cases. Consequently, in most OI patients, the hip is the only reliable measuring site for estimating future fracture risk. The aim of the study was to assess the applicability of hip structure analysis (HSA) by DXA in adult patients with osteogenesis imperfecta.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone, Fracture, Skeletal system, Psychometrics, Uncertainty, Intramembranous ossification, Osteogenesis imperfecta

27

The wedges of the mid-diaphyseal osteotomies carried out to correct the femoral and/or tibial native deformity in type III osteogenesis imperfecta (OI III) were used to study the remodeling patterns and lamellar organization at the level of the major deformity. Histology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) morphology showed abnormal cortical remodeling characterized by the failure to form a cylinder of compact bone with a regular marrow canal. Atypical, flattened, and large resorption lacunae with a wide resorption front on one side and systems of parallel lamellae on the opposite side were observed, resembling those formerly reported as drifting osteons. SEM morphometry documented a higher percentage of nonossified vascular/resorption area (44.3 %) in OI than in controls (13.6 %), a lower density of secondary osteons, and lower values for the parameters expressing the individual osteon size. The mean osteon total area, the mean central canal area, and the mean osteon bone area of two selected, randomized populations of secondary osteons were significantly higher (p < 0.001, p = 0.028, and p < 0.001, respectively) in control bones than in OI. The mean ossified matrix area was not significantly different, but the mean secondary osteon number and mean density were higher in controls (both p < 0.001). Osteon wedges were carried out to correct the native deformity of OI III and morphologic analysis suggested that the abnormal remodeling pattern (with "drifting osteons") may result from the altered load and tensile stresses on the deformed tubular bones.

Concepts: Electron microscope, Bone, Bone marrow, Skeletal system, Osseous tissue, Cortical bone, Scanning electron microscope, Osteogenesis imperfecta

27

Osteogenesis imperfecta and congenital diaphragmatic hernia are both conditions that can occur due to genetic mutation. We present the first case to be reported of a child with both osteogenesis imperfecta and congenital diaphragmatic hernias, showing that the incidence of this presentation may be more than chance.

Concepts: DNA, Genetics, Mutation, Evolution, Hernia, Congenital diaphragmatic hernia, Osteogenesis imperfecta, Diaphragmatic hernia

4

Children with osteogenesis imperfecta are often treated with intravenous bisphosphonates. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of risedronate, an orally administered third-generation bisphosphonate, in children with the disease.

Concepts: Bisphosphonate, Osteoporosis, Bisphosphonates, Randomized controlled trial, Osteogenesis imperfecta

3

Increased abundance and stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM), in particular collagens, is a hallmark of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). FK506-binding protein 10 (FKBP10) is a collagen chaperone, mutations of which are described to lead to reduced ECM stiffness, e.g. in osteogenesis imperfecta.

Concepts: Protein, Collagen, Extracellular matrix, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Osteogenesis imperfecta

3

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable disorder, in both a dominant and recessive manner, of connective tissue characterized by brittle bones, fractures and extraskeletal manifestations. How structural mutations of type I collagen (dominant OI) or of its post-translational modification machinery (recessive OI) can cause abnormal quality and quantity of bone is poorly understood. Notably, the clinical overlap between dominant and recessive forms of OI suggests common molecular pathomechanisms. Here, we show that excessive transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is a mechanism of OI in both recessive (Crtap(-/-)) and dominant (Col1a2(tm1.1Mcbr)) OI mouse models. In the skeleton, we find higher expression of TGF-β target genes, higher ratio of phosphorylated Smad2 to total Smad2 protein and higher in vivo Smad2 reporter activity. Moreover, the type I collagen of Crtap(-/-) mice shows reduced binding to the small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin, a known regulator of TGF-β activity. Anti-TGF-β treatment using the neutralizing antibody 1D11 corrects the bone phenotype in both forms of OI and improves the lung abnormalities in Crtap(-/-) mice. Hence, altered TGF-β matrix-cell signaling is a primary mechanism in the pathogenesis of OI and could be a promising target for the treatment of OI.

Concepts: Immune system, Bone, Gene, Collagen, Cartilage, Connective tissue, Osteogenesis imperfecta, COL1A2

2

Mutations in WNT1 cause osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and early-onset osteoporosis, identifying it as a key Wnt ligand in human bone homeostasis. However, how and where WNT1 acts in bone are unclear. To address this mechanism, we generated late-osteoblast-specific and osteocyte-specific WNT1 loss- and gain-of-function mouse models. Deletion of Wnt1 in osteocytes resulted in low bone mass with spontaneous fractures similar to that observed in OI patients. Conversely, Wnt1 overexpression from osteocytes stimulated bone formation by increasing osteoblast number and activity, which was due in part to activation of mTORC1 signaling. While antiresorptive therapy is the mainstay of OI treatment, it has limited efficacy in WNT1-related OI. In this study, anti-sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) treatment effectively improved bone mass and dramatically decreased fracture rate in swaying mice, a model of global Wnt1 loss. Collectively, our data suggest that WNT1-related OI and osteoporosis are caused in part by decreased mTORC1-dependent osteoblast function resulting from loss of WNT1 signaling in osteocytes. As such, this work identifies an anabolic function of osteocytes as a source of Wnt in bone development and homoeostasis, complementing their known function as targets of Wnt signaling in regulating osteoclastogenesis. Finally, this study suggests that Scl-Ab is an effective genotype-specific treatment option for WNT1-related OI and osteoporosis.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone, Bone fracture, Fracture, Skeletal system, Intramembranous ossification, Osteoblast, Osteogenesis imperfecta