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Concept: Order


Classification of species within the genus Salmo is still a matter of discussion due to their high level of diversity and to the low power of resolution of mitochondrial (mt)DNA-based phylogeny analyses that have been traditionally used in evolutionary studies of the genus. We apply a new marker system based on nuclear (n)DNA loci to present a novel view of the phylogeny of Salmo representatives and we compare it with the mtDNA-based phylogeny.

Concepts: DNA, Evolution, Molecular biology, Biology, Species, Phylogenetics, Order, Biological classification


Components of the chromatin remodelling SWI/SNF complex are recurrently mutated in tumours, suggesting that altering the activity of the complex plays a role in oncogenesis. However, the role that the individual subunits play in this process is not clear. We set out to develop an inhibitor compound targeting the bromodomain of BRD9 in order to evaluate its function within the SWI/SNF complex. Here, we present the discovery and development of a potent and selective BRD9 bromodomain inhibitor series based on a new pyridinone-like scaffold. Crystallographic information of the inhibitors bound to BRD9 guided their development with respect to potency for BRD9 and selectivity against BRD4. These compounds modulate BRD9 bromodomain cellular function and display anti-tumour activity in an AML xenograft model. Two chemical probes, BI-7273 (1) and BI-9564 (2), were identified that should prove useful in further exploring BRD9 bromodomain biology in both in vitro and in vivo settings.

Concepts: DNA, Natural selection, Mathematics, Function, In vivo, In vitro, Chemical compound, Order


Several mosquito species are vectors of disease; however, to understand their role in disease transmission, accurate species identification is of particular importance. Morphological-based identification remains the main method, but molecular techniques have emerged as a tool for identification of closely related species. In this study, mosquitoes of the West Azerbaijan Province in Northwestern Iran were characterized based on their rDNA-ITS2 sequences. Nine populations of Six species of mosquitoes belonging to Anopheles, Culex, Culiseta and Ochlerotatus genera were studied. For the first time, the ITS2 sequences of Culiseta longiareolata and Culex hortensis are reported. In addition, ITS2 of Culex theileri and Ochlerotatus caspius are for the first time reported from Iran. phylogenetic analysis based on ITS2 fragment showed that both Subfamilies (Anophelinae and Culicinae) of this family (Culicidae) could be differentiated successfully, and also in Genus Anopheles, both the studied Subgenera (Anopheles and Cellia) were separated. About the divergence of differently studied Genera (Culex., Culiseta and Ochlerotatus), the analysis showed that Genera Culiseta, Ochlerotatus and Culex. have been diverged separately.

Concepts: Biology, Species, Anopheles, Mosquito, Order, Culicidae, Fly, Culiseta longiareolata


Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The parasites, which infect various wild and domestic mammals, including humans, are transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies belonging to the Phlebotomus genus in the Old World and to several genera (including Lutzomyia, Psychodopygus and Nyssomyia) in the New World. In this paper, we consider the genus Sergentomyia as divided into seven subgenera, mainly based on spermathecal morphology: Sergentomyia, Sintonius, Parrotomyia, Rondanomyia, Capensomyia, Vattieromyia and Trouilletomyia. We also include the groups Grassomyia and Demeillonius but exclude the genera Spelaeomyia and Parvidens. The possible role of Sergentomyia in the circulation of mammalian leishmaniases in the Old World has been considered as Leishmania DNA and/or parasites have been identified in several species. However, several criteria must be fulfilled to incriminate an arthropod as a biological vector of leishmaniasis, namely: it must be attracted to and willing to feed on humans and any reservoir host, and be present in the same environment; several unambiguously identified wild female flies not containing blood meals have to be found infected (through isolation and/or typing of parasites) with the same strain of Leishmania as occurs in humans or any reservoir host; the presence of infective forms of Leishmania on naturally infected females and/or on colonized sand flies infected experimentally should be observed; and finally, the vector has to be able to transmit parasites as a result of blood-feeding on a susceptible mammal.

Concepts: Species, Mammal, Leishmaniasis, Leishmania, Order, Phlebotominae, Phlebotomus, Lutzomyia


More than 80 incidences of fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders - observed at the fringes of shallow freshwater streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, swamps, and fens - are reviewed. We provide evidence that fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders is geographically widespread, occurring on all continents except Antarctica. Fish predation by spiders appears to be more common in warmer areas between 40° S and 40° N. The fish captured by spiders, usually ranging from 2-6 cm in length, are among the most common fish taxa occurring in their respective geographic area (e.g., mosquitofish [Gambusia spp.] in the southeastern USA, fish of the order Characiformes in the Neotropics, killifish [Aphyosemion spp.] in Central and West Africa, as well as Australian native fish of the genera Galaxias, Melanotaenia, and Pseudomugil). Naturally occurring fish predation has been witnessed in more than a dozen spider species from the superfamily Lycosoidea (families Pisauridae, Trechaleidae, and Lycosidae), in two species of the superfamily Ctenoidea (family Ctenidae), and in one species of the superfamily Corinnoidea (family Liocranidae). The majority of reports on fish predation by spiders referred to pisaurid spiders of the genera Dolomedes and Nilus (>75% of observed incidences). There is laboratory evidence that spiders from several more families (e.g., the water spider Argyroneta aquatica [Cybaeidae], the intertidal spider Desis marina [Desidae], and the ‘swimming’ huntsman spider Heteropoda natans [Sparassidae]) predate fish as well. Our finding of such a large diversity of spider families being engaged in fish predation is novel. Semi-aquatic spiders captured fish whose body length exceeded the spiders' body length (the captured fish being, on average, 2.2 times as long as the spiders). Evidence suggests that fish prey might be an occasional prey item of substantial nutritional importance.

Concepts: Species, Predation, Order, Class, Spider, Wolf spider, Spider bite, Tarantula


The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far.

Concepts: Nematocera, Insect, Order, Lepidoptera, Flies, Pollinators, Moth, Butterfly


Flies of the genus Drosophila, and particularly those of the species Drosophila melanogaster, are best known as laboratory organisms. As with all model organisms, they were domesticated for empirical studies, but they also continue to exist as wild populations. Decades of research on these flies in the laboratory have produced astounding and important insights into basic biological processes, but we have only scratched the surface of what they have to offer as research organisms. An outstanding challenge now is to build on this knowledge and explore how natural history has shaped D. melanogaster in order to advance our understanding of biology more generally.

Concepts: Scientific method, Biology, Organism, Species, Model organism, Order, Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila


Forty-two species of Cossidae representing 27 genera are reported for Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Three species (Paracossus zyaung Yakovlev sp. nov., Phragmacossia laklong Yakovlev sp. nov., Butaya auko Yakovlev sp. nov.) are described as new to science. Five species (Paracossus indradit Yakovlev, 2009, P. griseatus Yakovlev, 2009, Aholcocerus ihleorum Yakovlev & Witt, 2009, Skeletophyllon puer Yakovlev, 2011, Azygophleps scalaris (Fabricius, 1775) are new country records. A brief biogegraphical overview of the Cossidae of Vietnam is given.

Concepts: United States, Order, Lepidoptera, Vietnam, Communism, Socialism, Country music, Socialist state


Leishmaniasis is a major vector-borne disease and health problem in Iran. Studies on sand flies, as the vectors of the disease, began in the Northern and Western parts of the country in 1930 and have been continued up to now. Concerning many published information in the field of sand flies, providing a digital database for the country will help the public health authorities to make more correct and prompt decisions for planning leishmaniasis control programs as well as modeling and forecasting of transmission potential across the country. All published data on phlebotomine sand flies of Iran were collected. A database was then designed in Excel format, including all available information regarding sand flies. The valid data were transferred to ArcGIS9.3 to prepare the first spatial database of sand flies of Iran. The IrSandflybase includes 131 papers, 2 abstracts and 71 PhD/MSc theses, reporting studies conducted during 1930-2012. This database contains different available data covering all aspects of ecology and biology of 48 sand fly species in two genera of Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia in the country. The temporal activity of sand flies is reported 9 months in warm regions of the southern part, while it may reduce to 7-8 months in central plateau or 4-5 months in cold areas of the northwest. Occasional studies reported rare species from the borderlines of Iran. It seems that changing the climate due to global warming may affect the spatial distribution of different species and expand it into the country, the issue that can be followed by an updated database.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Species, Order, Flies, Fly, Phlebotominae, Phlebotomus, Lutzomyia


Family members are involved in the care of palliative patients at home and therefore, should be viewed as important sources of information to help clinicians better understand the quality palliative care service patients receive. The objective of the study was to analyse what is valued most by family carers undergoing bereavement of a palliative care home service in order to identify factors of quality of care.

Concepts: Family, Palliative care, Household, Care of residents, Order, Taxonomic rank, Nursing specialties