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Concept: Oral allergy syndrome


Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies.This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy.It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional intervention and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy.Children with food allergies have poor growth compared to non-affected subjects directly proportional to the quantity of foods excluded and the duration of the diet. Nutritional intervention, if properly planned and properly monitored, has proven to be an effective mean to substantiate a recovery in growth.Nutritional intervention depends on the subject’s nutritional status at the time of the diagnosis.The assessment of the nutritional status of children with food allergies should follow a diagnostic pathway that involves a series of successive steps, beginning from the collection of a detailed diet-history.It is essential that children following an exclusion diet are followed up regularly.The periodic re-evaluation of the child is needed to assess the nutritional needs, changing with the age, and the compliance to the diet.The follow- up plan should be established on the basis of the age of the child and following the growth pattern.

Concepts: Immune system, Nutrition, Asthma, Allergy, Food, Food allergy, Eczema, Oral allergy syndrome


Food allergy prevalence is reported to be increasing, but epidemiological data using patients' electronic health records (EHRs) remain sparse.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Asthma, Allergy, Food allergy, Eczema, Electronic health record, Allergology, Oral allergy syndrome


Antibodies and T cells specific for the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 cross-react with structurally related food allergens, such as Mal d 1 in apple.

Concepts: Immune system, White blood cell, Antibody, Asthma, Immunology, Allergy, Antigen, Oral allergy syndrome


The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy persists into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Allergy, Childhood, Food allergy, Eczema, Allergology, Oral allergy syndrome


Evidence is compelling for a positive correlation between climate change, urbanisation and prevalence of allergic sensitisation and diseases. The reason for this association is not clear to date. Some data point to a pro-allergenic effect of anthropogenic factors on susceptible individuals.

Concepts: Asthma, Climate change, Pollen, Statistical dependence, Oral allergy syndrome


Children with food allergies spend a large proportion of time in school but characteristics of allergic reactions in schools are not well studied. Some schools self-designate as peanut-free or have peanut-free areas, but the impact of policies on clinical outcomes has not been evaluated.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Allergy, Food, Food allergy, Eczema, Allergology, Oral allergy syndrome


Food allergies affect an estimated 15 million persons in the United States (1), and are responsible for approximately 30,000 emergency department visits and 150-200 deaths each year (2). Nearly half of reported fatal food allergy reactions over a 13-year period were caused by food from a restaurant or other food service establishment (3). To ascertain the prevalence of food allergy training, training topics, and practices related to food allergies, CDC’s Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), a collaborative forum of federal agencies and state and local health departments with six sites, interviewed personnel at 278 restaurants. Fewer than half of the 277 restaurant managers (44.4%), 211 food workers (40.8%), and 156 servers (33.3%) interviewed reported receiving food allergy training. Among those who reported receiving training, topics commonly included the major food allergens and what to do if a customer has a food allergy. Although most restaurants had ingredient lists for at least some menu items, few had separate equipment or areas designated for the preparation of allergen-free food. Restaurants can reduce the risk for allergic reactions among patrons by providing food allergy training for personnel and ingredient lists for all menu items and by dedicating equipment and areas specifically for preparing allergen-free food.

Concepts: Asthma, Allergy, Food, Food allergy, Eczema, Allergology, Restaurant, Oral allergy syndrome


As medical reports over the last decade indicate that food allergies among children are on the rise, peanut allergies in particular have become a topic of intense social debate. While peanut allergies are potentially fatal, they affect very few children at the population level. Yet, peanut allergies are characterized in medical and popular literature as a rising “epidemic,” and myriad and broad-based social responses have emerged to address peanut allergy risk in public spaces. This analysis compares medical literature to other textual sources, including media reports, legislation, and advocacy between 1980 and 2010 in order to examine how peanut allergies transformed from a rare medical malady into a contemporary public health problem. I argue that the peanut allergy epidemic was co-constructed through interactions between experts, publics, biomedical categories, and institutions, while social reactions to the putative epidemic expanded the sphere of surveillance and awareness of peanut allergy risk. The characterization of the peanut allergy problem as an epidemic was shaped by mobility across social sites, with both discursive and material effects.

Concepts: Asthma, Allergy, Food allergy, Eczema, Allergology, Oral allergy syndrome, Food allergies, Peanut allergy


Five years have passed since the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Food Allergy (JPGFA) was first revised in 2011 from its original version. As many scientific papers related to food allergy have been published during the last 5 years, the second major revision of the JPGFA was carried out in 2016. In this guideline, food allergies are generally classified into four clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type of food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) special forms of immediate-type of food allergy such as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (OAS). Much of this guideline covers the immediate-type of food allergy that is seen during childhood to adolescence. Infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy type is especially important as the onset of most food allergies occurs during infancy. We have discussed the neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy and special forms of immediate type food allergy types┬áseparately. Diagnostic procedures are highlighted, such as probability curves and component-resolved diagnosis, including the recent advancement utilizing antigen-specific IgE. The oral food challenge using a stepwise approach is recommended to avoid complete elimination of causative foods. Although oral immunotherapy (OIT) has not been approved as a routine treatment by nationwide insurance, we included a chapter for OIT, focusing on efficacy and problems. Prevention of food allergy is currently the focus of interest, and many changes were made based on recent evidence. Finally, the contraindication between adrenaline and antipsychotic drugs in Japan was discussed among related medical societies, and we reached an agreement that the use of adrenaline can be allowed based on the physician’s discretion. In conclusion, this guideline encourages physicians to follow the principle to let patients consume causative foods in any way and as early as possible.

Concepts: Asthma, Hypersensitivity, Allergy, Atopy, Food allergy, Eczema, Allergology, Oral allergy syndrome


More than 70% of birch pollen-allergic patients develop allergic cross-reactions to the major allergen found in apple fruits (Malus domestica), the 17.5 kDa protein Mal d 1. Allergic reactions against this protein result from initial sensitization to the major allergen from birch pollen, Bet v 1. Immunologic cross-reactivity of Bet v 1-specific IgE antibodies with Mal d 1 after apple consumption can subsequently provoke severe oral allergic syndromes. In this study we present the three-dimensional NMR solution structure of Mal d 1 (isoform Mal d 1.0101, initially cloned from Granny Smith apples). We show that this protein is composed of a seven-stranded antiparallel ╬▓-sheet and three ╬▒-helices that form a large internal cavity, similar to Bet v 1 and other cross-reactive food allergens. The Mal d 1 structure provides the basis for elucidating the details of allergic cross-reactivity between birch pollen and apple allergens on a molecular level.

Concepts: Immune system, Molecular biology, Asthma, Immunology, Allergy, Apple, Granny Smith, Oral allergy syndrome