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Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Neurosurgery

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To assess effectiveness of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA, Gliolan(®)) in patients treated for malignant glioma under typical daily practice conditions in Spain, using complete resection rate (CR) and progression free survival at 6 months (PFS6).

Concepts: Glioma, Neurosurgery, Resection

148

Vestibular schwannoma is the most frequent cerebellopontine angle tumor. The aim of our study is to reflect our experience in the surgical treatment of this tumor MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 420 vestibular schwannomas operated in our hospital between 1994-2014. We include tumor size, preoperative hearing, surgical approaches, definitive facial and hearing functional results, and complications due to surgery.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Al-Andalus, Neurosurgery, Vestibular schwannoma, Schwannoma

143

A brief overview of failed back surgery syndrome, with emphasis on low back pain status post spinal cord stimulation, and post-surgical spinal manipulation is presented.

Concepts: Spinal disc herniation, Low back pain, Back pain, Neurosurgery

59

The aim was to investigate associations between different measures of socioeconomic position (SEP) and incidence of brain tumours (glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma) in a nationwide population-based cohort.

Concepts: Cohort study, Epidemiology, Cancer, Oncology, Brain tumor, Types of cancer, Neurology, Neurosurgery

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OBJECTIVE Recent advances in optics and miniaturization have enabled the development of a growing number of minimally invasive procedures, yet innovative training methods for the use of these techniques remain lacking. Conventional teaching models, including cadavers and physical trainers as well as virtual reality platforms, are often expensive and ineffective. Newly developed 3D printing technologies can recreate patient-specific anatomy, but the stiffness of the materials limits fidelity to real-life surgical situations. Hollywood special effects techniques can create ultrarealistic features, including lifelike tactile properties, to enhance accuracy and effectiveness of the surgical models. The authors created a highly realistic model of a pediatric patient with hydrocephalus via a unique combination of 3D printing and special effects techniques and validated the use of this model in training neurosurgery fellows and residents to perform endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), an effective minimally invasive method increasingly used in treating hydrocephalus. METHODS A full-scale reproduction of the head of a 14-year-old adolescent patient with hydrocephalus, including external physical details and internal neuroanatomy, was developed via a unique collaboration of neurosurgeons, simulation engineers, and a group of special effects experts. The model contains “plug-and-play” replaceable components for repetitive practice. The appearance of the training model (face validity) and the reproducibility of the ETV training procedure (content validity) were assessed by neurosurgery fellows and residents of different experience levels based on a 14-item Likert-like questionnaire. The usefulness of the training model for evaluating the performance of the trainees at different levels of experience (construct validity) was measured by blinded observers using the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for the performance of ETV. RESULTS A combination of 3D printing technology and casting processes led to the creation of realistic surgical models that include high-fidelity reproductions of the anatomical features of hydrocephalus and allow for the performance of ETV for training purposes. The models reproduced the pulsations of the basilar artery, ventricles, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), thus simulating the experience of performing ETV on an actual patient. The results of the 14-item questionnaire showed limited variability among participants' scores, and the neurosurgery fellows and residents gave the models consistently high ratings for face and content validity. The mean score for the content validity questions (4.88) was higher than the mean score for face validity (4.69) (p = 0.03). On construct validity scores, the blinded observers rated performance of fellows significantly higher than that of residents, indicating that the model provided a means to distinguish between novice and expert surgical skills. CONCLUSIONS A plug-and-play lifelike ETV training model was developed through a combination of 3D printing and special effects techniques, providing both anatomical and haptic accuracy. Such simulators offer opportunities to accelerate the development of expertise with respect to new and novel procedures as well as iterate new surgical approaches and innovations, thus allowing novice neurosurgeons to gain valuable experience in surgical techniques without exposing patients to risk of harm.

Concepts: Surgery, Psychometrics, Validity, Cerebrospinal fluid, Neurosurgery, Hydrocephalus, Content validity, Special effects

28

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as an effective neurosurgical tool to treat a range of conditions. Its use in movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, tremor and dystonia is now well established and has been approved by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE). The NICE does, however, emphasise the need for a multidisciplinary team to manage these patients. Such a team is traditionally composed of neurologists, neurosurgeons and neuropsychologists. Neuropsychiatrists, however, are increasingly recognised as essential members given many psychiatric considerations that may arise in patients undergoing DBS. Patient selection, assessment of competence to consent and treatment of postoperative psychiatric disease are just a few areas where neuropsychiatric input is invaluable. Partly driven by this close team working and partly based on the early history of DBS for psychiatric disorders, there is increasing interest in re-exploring the potential of neurosurgery to treat patients with psychiatric disease, such as depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Although the clinical experience and evidence with DBS in this group of patients are steadily increasing, many questions remain unanswered. Yet, the characteristics of optimal surgical candidates, the best choice of DBS target, the most effective stimulating parameters and the extent of postoperative improvement are not clear for most psychiatric conditions. Further research is therefore required to define how DBS can be best utilised to improve the quality of life of patients with psychiatric disease.

Concepts: Medicine, Neurology, Parkinson's disease, Deep brain stimulation, Dystonia, Mental disorder, Neurosurgery, Psychiatry

28

In a previous study we found significantly decreased N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and total N-acetyl (tNA) groups in the thalamus of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) compared with healthy individuals (HI). No significant difference between the groups could be found in the frontal deep white matter (FDWM).

Concepts: Dementia, White matter, Neurosurgery, Pressure, Hydrocephalus, Normal pressure hydrocephalus

28

The classic cut and sew maze is thought to reduce stroke, in part because of left atrial appendage (LAA) elimination. Multiple LAA elimination techniques have evolved with the introduction of new surgical treatment options for atrial fibrillation (AF), but the impact on stroke remains unknown. We studied the rate of late neurologic event (LNE) in the era of contemporary AF surgery.

Concepts: Medicine, Hospital, Atrial fibrillation, Surgery, Neurosurgery, Atrial flutter, Left atrial appendage occlusion, Left atrial appendage

28

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to provide the first prospective longitudinal assessment of anxiety and depression in patients with a benign intracranial meningioma (WHO° I). METHODS: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was applied prior to (t1) and directly after (t2) neurosurgery as well as 6 months after surgery (t3). The research was conducted in a single treatment centre in Germany. Numerous sociodemographic, medical, psychological and cognitive accompanying measures were assessed. The study population consisted of 52 meningioma patients. Additionally, a control group of 24 patients with malignant brain tumours (astrocytoma WHO° III) was assessed. RESULTS: In meningioma patients, anxiety was high prior to surgery but declined significantly after successful neurosurgical treatment. Low levels of depression were observed at all times. In contrast, astrocytoma patients showed constantly high levels of anxiety whilst depression increased over the course of the disease. Numerous medical, psychosocial and psychological factors were associated with psychiatric morbidity in meningioma patients. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, psychiatric morbidity of patients with benign intracranial meningiomas was comparable to that of the general population after successful neurosurgical treatment. Numerous associated factors suggest complex relationships within a biopsychosocial model. However, due to the small sample size and recruitment in a single institution, our results are of limited generalisability and need cross-validation in future studies.

Concepts: Psychology, Sample size, Surgery, Brain tumor, Neurosurgery, Psychiatry, Meningioma, Biopsychosocial model

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Object The focus of the present study was the evaluation of outcomes after unstaged and staged-volume Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in children harboring intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Methods Twenty-two children (median age 9.5 years) underwent GKS for AVMs and were followed up for at least 2 years thereafter. The disease manifested with intracranial hemorrhage in 77% of cases. In 68% of patients the lesion affected eloquent brain structures. The volume of the nidus ranged from 0.1 to 6.7 cm(3). Gamma Knife surgery was guided mainly by data from dynamic contrast-enhanced CT scans, with preferential targeting of the junction between the nidus and draining vein. The total prescribed isodose volume was kept below 4.0 cm(3), and the median margin dose was 22 Gy (range 20-25 Gy). If the volume of the nidus was larger than 4.0 cm(3), a second radiosurgical session was planned for 3-4 years after the first one. Nine patients in the present series underwent unstaged radiosurgery, whereas staged-volume treatment was scheduled in 13 patients. Results Complete obliteration of the AVM was noted in 17 (77%) of 22 patients within a median period of 47 months after the last radiosurgical session. Complete obliteration of the lesion occurred in 89% of patients after unstaged treatment and in 62.5% after staged GKS. Four (67%) of 6 high-grade AVMs were completely obliterated. Complications included 3 bleeding episodes, the appearance of a region of hyperintensity on T(2)-weighted MR images in 2 patients who had no symptoms, and reappearance of the nidus in the vicinity of the completely obliterated AVM in 1 patient. Conclusions Radiosurgery is a highly effective management option for intracranial AVMs in children. For larger lesions, staged GKS may be applied successfully. Initial targeting of the nidus adjacent to the draining vein and application of a sufficient radiation dose to a relatively small volume (≤ 4 cm(3)) provides a good balance between a high probability of obliteration and a low risk of treatment-related complications.

Concepts: Brain tumor, Anatomical pathology, Radiobiology, Gamma knife, Neurosurgery, Congenital disorders, Arteriovenous malformation, Cerebral arteriovenous malformation