SciCombinator

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Concept: Morris County, New Jersey

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We report the discovery of large numbers of Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann (Ixodida: Ixodidae) infesting a sheep in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, United States. All life stages were found on the sheep, which had no history of travel outside the country. H. longicornis is native to East Asia, and there are invasive populations in Australia, New Zealand and several Pacific islands, where this tick is a major livestock pest. It is currently unknown whether the New Jersey collections represent a limited or established population, but because this species could present a significant threat to human and animal health in the United States, vigilance is encouraged.

Concepts: United States, New Zealand, Pacific Ocean, New York City, Native Americans in the United States, Morris County, New Jersey, New Jersey, Hunterdon County, New Jersey

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Hovering and swarming activity of male Tabanus calens L. were documented at distinctive sites above a woodland road clearing in Knox Co., TN (7 d), and above a slow-flowing river in Morris Co., NJ (6 d). Activity was restricted to the period near sunset. Mean activity typically began about 10 min before sunset and continued until about 10 min after sunset, with an average duration of 18.7 min (Tennessee) and 20.8 min (New Jersey). Swarming began earlier and thus lasted longer (55 min) on one cool New Jersey date. Onset and particularly cessation of activity tended to be statistically correlated with sunset time. Most males hovered at heights of 5-8 m in Tennessee, and they hovered in stable locations for a median of only 10 s (maximum 2 min 57 s) before darting away. Hovering in New Jersey was observed from 0.5-8.0 m above the water. The behavior of T. calens might be especially interesting to study in more detail, given its unusual eye morphology (lack of obvious dorsoventral facet size differences found in males of most other Tabanidae).

Concepts: Mode, United States, Arithmetic mean, Mean, New York City, Morris County, New Jersey, New Jersey, Kentucky

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The aim of this retrospective study was to compare targeting of “pure” Osteomyelitis [without surrounding soft tissue infection] by directly [99mTc]Tc–labelled complete IgG MAb (99mTc–Besilesomab) and by directly [99mTc]Tc–labelled fragmented Fab` MAb (99mTc–Sulesomab) in relation to their kinetic fate. A total of 73 patients with “pure"Osteomyelitis were examined with [99mTc]Tc–besilesomab, (Scintimun®, IBA/CIS bio international, Saclay, France) n=38; [99mTc]–sulesomab, LeukoScan®, (Immunomedics Inc., Morris Plains, NJ, USA) n = 35.

Concepts: Immune system, United States, Monoclonal antibodies, Immunology, Immunohistochemistry, Morris County, New Jersey, Morristown, New Jersey

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Triclosan (TCS) is a common antimicrobial agent that has been detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent outflows. A link between TCS exposure and increased antibiotic resistance in microbes has been postulated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether fecal coliforms (FC) isolated from surface waters located near (WWTP) outflows display TCS resistance and, if so, whether such organisms exhibit increased resistance to antibiotics. Water samples were collected at two streams in Morris County, NJ that receive WWTP effluent: Loantaka Brook and the Whippany River. Water samples were collected at three sites within each location near the WWTP effluent outflow. Abiotic river parameters were measured and FCs were enumerated for each sample. River parameters were analyzed to determine if TCS or antibiotic resistance was correlated to water quality. Triclosan resistance levels were determined for individual isolates, and isolates were screened against seven classes of antibiotics at clinically relevant levels to assess cross-resistance. At Loantaka Brook, 78.8% of FC isolates were resistant to TCS with an average minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 43.2μgml(-1). In addition, 89.6% of isolates were resistant to four classes of antibiotics and all were identified as Citrobacter freundii. There was a significant effect of stream location on mean TCS MIC values in the Loantaka Brook, with effluent isolates maintaining significantly higher MIC values compared to upstream isolates. At Whippany River sites, TCS resistant isolates were detected on 94% of sampling dates with a significant relationship between TCS resistance and multiple antibiotic resistances (≥three antibiotic classes, p<0.001). TCS resistant isolates were significantly more resistant to chloramphenicol (p=0.007) and to nitrofurantoin (p=0.037) when compared to TCS sensitive isolates. Environmental FC isolates resistant to high level TCS included species of Escherichia, Enterobacter, Serratia and Citrobacter. There was no correlation between river water quality and resistance of isolates to TCS. Presence of isolates not resistant to TCS, but resistant to other antibiotics, were significantly correlated to increased river flow, precipitation, and decreased nutrient levels, suggesting that observed resistance is due to run-off events. This study demonstrates that TCS resistant FC are common in river systems receiving WWTP effluent and display multiple drug resistance.

Concepts: Bacteria, Water, Antibiotic resistance, Water pollution, Sewage treatment, Microorganism, Morris County, New Jersey, Passaic River