Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Mirror


The goal of this study was to test whether central mechanisms of scratching-induced itch attenuation can be activated by scratching the limb contralateral to the itching limb when the participant is made to visually perceive the non-itching limb as the itching limb by means of mirror images.

Concepts: Optics, Mirror, Itch


To report a case of persistent retinal toxicity associated with a high dose of sildenafil citrate intake.

Concepts: Photon, Optics, Coherence, Retina, Mirror, Citrates, Wavefront, Adaptive optics



This study aimed to explore the effects of mirror therapy integrated with task-oriented exercise on balance function in poststroke hemiparesis. Twenty patients with poststroke hemiparesis were assigned randomly to an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG), with 10 individuals each. Participants of the EG and CG received a task-oriented exercise program with a focus on the strengthening of the lower limb and the practice of balance-related functional tasks. An additional option for the EG was front and side wall mirrors to provide visual feedback for their own movements while performing the exercise. The program was performed for 30 min, twice a day, five times per week for 4 weeks. Outcome measures included the Berg balance scale, the timed up-and-go test, and quantitative data (balance index and dynamic limits of stability). In the EG and CG, all variables showed significant differences between pretest and post-test (P<0.05), and post-test values of all variables appeared to be significantly different between two groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, in the EG, the change values between pretest and post-test values of Berg balance scale (13.00±3.20 vs. 6.60±4.55 scores), and timed up-and-go test (6.45±3.00 vs. 3.61±1.84 s), balance index (2.29±0.51 vs. 0.96±0.65 scores), dynamic limits of stability (7.70±3.83 vs. 3.70±4.60 scores) were significantly higher than those of the CG (P<0.05). The findings suggest that a mirror therapy may be used as a beneficial therapeutic option to facilitate the effects of a task-oriented exercise on balance function of patients with poststroke hemiparesis.

Concepts: Mass, Sociology, Therapy, Experiment, Measuring instrument, Mirror, Balance, 2003 albums


This study conducted a driving simulator experiment to comparatively evaluate three in-vehicle side-view displays layouts for camera monitor systems (CMS) and the traditional side-view mirror arrangement. The three layouts placed two electronic side-view displays near the traditional mirrors positions, on the dashboard at each side of the steering wheel and on the centre fascia with the two displays joined side-by-side, respectively. Twenty-two participants performed a time- and safety-critical driving task that required rapidly gaining situation awareness through the side-view displays/mirrors and making a lane change to avoid collision. The dependent variables were eye-off-the-road time, response time, and, ratings of perceived workload, preference and perceived safety. Overall, the layout placing the side-view displays on the dashboard at each side of the steering wheel was found to be the best. The results indicated that reducing eye gaze travel distance and maintaining compatibility were both important for the design of CMS displays layout.

Concepts: Change, Mirror, Automobile, Place, Mirrors, Layout


Unlike the electrostatic and electromagnetic lenses used in electron microscopy, most X-ray focusing optical systems have fixed optical parameters with constant numerical apertures (NAs). This lack of adaptability has significantly limited application targets. In the research described herein, we developed a variable-NA X-ray focusing system based on four deformable mirrors, two sets of Kirkpatrick-Baez-type focusing mirrors, in order to control the focusing size while keeping the position of the focus unchanged. We applied a mirror deformation procedure using optical/X-ray metrology for offline/online adjustments. We performed a focusing test at a SPring-8 beamline and confirmed that the beam size varied from 108 nm to 560 nm (165 nm to 1434 nm) in the horizontal (vertical) direction by controlling the NA while maintaining diffraction-limited conditions.

Concepts: Electron, Diffraction, Optics, Light, Electromagnetic radiation, Mirror, Aperture, F-number


Sensory traps pose a considerable and often fatal risk for animals, leading them to misinterpret their environment. Bats predominantly rely on their echolocation system to forage, orientate, and navigate. We found that bats can mistake smooth, vertical surfaces as clear flight paths, repeatedly colliding with them, likely as a result of their acoustic mirror properties. The probability of collision is influenced by the number of echolocation calls and by the amount of time spent in front of the surface. The echolocation call analysis corroborates that bats perceive smooth, vertical surfaces as open flyways. Reporting on occurrences with different species in the wild, we argue that it is necessary to more closely monitor potentially dangerous locations with acoustic mirror properties (such as glass fronts) to assess the true frequency of fatalities around these sensory traps.

Concepts: Sense, Acoustics, Surface, Bat, Glass, Mirror, Collision, Kiefer Sutherland


Mirror self-recognition is a hallmark of higher intelligence in humans. Most children recognize themselves in the mirror by 2 years of age [1]. In contrast to human and some great apes, monkeys have consistently failed the standard mark test for mirror self-recognition in all previous studies [2-10]. Here, we show that rhesus monkeys could acquire mirror-induced self-directed behaviors resembling mirror self-recognition following training with visual-somatosensory association. Monkeys were trained on a monkey chair in front of a mirror to touch a light spot on their faces produced by a laser light that elicited an irritant sensation. After 2-5 weeks of training, monkeys had learned to touch a face area marked by a non-irritant light spot or odorless dye in front of a mirror and by a virtual face mark on the mirroring video image on a video screen. Furthermore, in the home cage, five out of seven trained monkeys showed typical mirror-induced self-directed behaviors, such as touching the mark on the face or ear and then looking at and/or smelling their fingers, as well as spontaneously using the mirror to explore normally unseen body parts. Four control monkeys of a similar age that went through mirror habituation but had no training of visual-somatosensory association did not pass any mark tests and did not exhibit mirror-induced self-directed behaviors. These results shed light on the origin of mirror self-recognition and suggest a new approach to studying its neural mechanism.

Concepts: Primate, Chimpanzee, Ape, Face, Faces, Monkeys in space, Monkey, Mirror


In the Learning Early About Peanut Allergy (LEAP) study, early peanut introduction in high-risk 4-11 month olds was associated with a significantly decreased risk of developing peanut allergy. However, the influences of key baseline high-risk factors on peanut tolerance are poorly understood.

Concepts: Statistical significance, Allergy, Study skills, Knowledge, Food allergy, Glass, Peanut, Mirror


Scallops possess a visual system comprising up to 200 eyes, each containing a concave mirror rather than a lens to focus light. The hierarchical organization of the multilayered mirror is controlled for image formation, from the component guanine crystals at the nanoscale to the complex three-dimensional morphology at the millimeter level. The layered structure of the mirror is tuned to reflect the wavelengths of light penetrating the scallop’s habitat and is tiled with a mosaic of square guanine crystals, which reduces optical aberrations. The mirror forms images on a double-layered retina used for separately imaging the peripheral and central fields of view. The tiled, off-axis mirror of the scallop eye bears a striking resemblance to the segmented mirrors of reflecting telescopes.

Concepts: Optics, Light, Eye, Visual perception, Visual system, Lens, Telescope, Mirror