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Concept: MATLAB


BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need for processing and understanding relevant information generated by the systematic collection of public health data over time. However, the analysis of those time series usually requires advanced modeling techniques, which are not necessarily mastered by staff, technicians and researchers working on public health and epidemiology. Here a user-friendly tool, EPIPOI, is presented that facilitates the exploration and extraction of parameters describing trends, seasonality and anomalies that characterize epidemiological processes. It also enables the inspection of those parameters across geographic regions. Although the visual exploration and extraction of relevant parameters from time series data is crucial in epidemiological research, until now it had been largely restricted to specialists. METHODS: EPIPOI is freely available software developed in Matlab (The Mathworks Inc) that runs both on PC and Mac computers. Its friendly interface guides users intuitively through useful comparative analyses including the comparison of spatial patterns in temporal parameters. RESULTS: EPIPOI is able to handle complex analyses in an accessible way. A prototype has already been used to assist researchers in a variety of contexts from didactic use in public health workshops to the main analytical tool in published research. CONCLUSIONS: EPIPOI can assist public health officials and students to explore time series data using a broad range of sophisticated analytical and visualization tools. It also provides an analytical environment where even advanced users can benefit by enabling a higher degree of control over model assumptions, such as those associated with detecting disease outbreaks and pandemics.

Concepts: Public health, Health, Epidemiology, Time series, Biostatistics, Outbreak, The MathWorks, MATLAB


A computational toolkit (spektr 3.0) has been developed to calculate x-ray spectra based on the tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating cubic splines (TASMICS) algorithm, updating previous work based on the tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) spectral model. The toolkit includes a matlab (The Mathworks, Natick, MA) function library and improved user interface (UI) along with an optimization algorithm to match calculated beam quality with measurements.

Concepts: Algorithm, Mathematics, Java, Numerical analysis, User interface, The MathWorks, MATLAB, Natick, Massachusetts


A memory-efficient algorithm for the computation of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of large mass spectrometry imaging data sets is presented. Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) enables two- and three- dimensional overviews of hundreds of unlabeled molecular species in complex samples such as intact tissue. PCA, in combination with data binning or other reduction algorithms, has been widely used in the unsupervised processing of MSI data and as a dimentionality reduction method prior to clustering and spatial segmentation. Standard implementations of PCA require the data to be stored in random access memory. This imposes an upper limit on the amount of data that can be processed, necessitating a compromise between the number of pixels and the number of peaks to include. With increasing interest in multivariate analysis of large 3D multi-slice datasets and ongoing improvements in instrumentation, the ability to retain all pixels and many more peaks is increasingly important. We present a new method which has no limitation on the number of pixels and allows an increased number of peaks to be retained. The new technique was validated against the MATLAB (The MathWorks Inc., Natick, Massachusetts) implementation of PCA (princomp) and then used to reduce, without discarding peaks or pixels, multiple serial sections acquired from a single mouse brain which was too large to be analysed with princomp. k-means clustering was then performed on the reduced dataset. We further demonstrate with simulated data of 83 slices, comprising 20535 pixels per slice and equalling 44 GB of data, that the new method can be used in combination with existing tools to process an entire organ. MATLAB code implementing the memory efficient PCA algorithm is provided.

Concepts: Multivariate statistics, Data set, Principal component analysis, Machine learning, The MathWorks, MATLAB, K-means clustering, Natick, Massachusetts


We present here a toolbox for the real-time motion capture of biological movements that runs in the cross-platform MATLAB environment (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA). It provides instantaneous processing of the 3-D movement coordinates of up to 20 markers at a single instant. Available functions include (1) the setting of reference positions, areas, and trajectories of interest; (2) recording of the 3-D coordinates for each marker over the trial duration; and (3) the detection of events to use as triggers for external reinforcers (e.g., lights, sounds, or odors). Through fast online communication between the hardware controller and RTMocap, automatic trial selection is possible by means of either a preset or an adaptive criterion. Rapid preprocessing of signals is also provided, which includes artifact rejection, filtering, spline interpolation, and averaging. A key example is detailed, and three typical variations are developed (1) to provide a clear understanding of the importance of real-time control for 3-D motion in cognitive sciences and (2) to present users with simple lines of code that can be used as starting points for customizing experiments using the simple MATLAB syntax. RTMocap is freely available ( ) under the GNU public license for noncommercial use and open-source development, together with sample data and extensive documentation.

Concepts: Time, Interpolation, The MathWorks, MATLAB, Spline, Natick, Massachusetts, Cleve Moler, Simulink


The amount of electricity generated by Photovoltaic (PV) systems is affected by factors such as shading, building orientation and roof slope. To increase electricity generation and reduce volatility in generation of PV systems, a portfolio of PV systems can be made which takes advantages of the potential synergy among neighboring buildings. This paper contains data supporting the research article entitled: PACPIM: new decision-support model of optimized portfolio analysis for community-based photovoltaic investment [1]. We present a set of data relating to physical properties of 24 houses in Oregon, USA, along with simulated hourly electricity data for the installed PV systems. The developed Matlab code to construct optimized portfolios is also provided in . The application of these files can be generalized to variety of communities interested in investing on PV systems.

Concepts: Risk, Photovoltaics, Bond, Investment, Construction, Building, House, MATLAB


Aim Sella turcica bridging and ossified carotico-clinoid ligament are two variants of the sella turcica, the origin of which is partially unknown. These variations should be properly recognised, as they may hamper the removal of the anterior clinoid process in surgical procedures. Therefore, our aim was to determine the prevalence of these two anatomical variants and to investigate their prevalence according to patient sex and age in a series of maxilla computed tomography scans. Materials and methods We revised 300 computed tomography scans of the head from northern Italian patients, stratified into three age groups (18-40 years, 41-60 years, >60 years): a logistic regression analysis was used to explore an association of sella turcica bridging with age and sex through Matlab software, also including a test for the extracted model ( P < 0.05). Results The mean prevalence of sella turcica bridging and ossified carotico-clinoid ligament were 0.16 ± 0.06 (48/300, 16.0%) and 0.09 ± 0.03 (26/300, 8.7%), respectively. Statistically significant differences according to sex were found neither for sella turcica bridging ( P = 0.345) nor for ossified carotico-clinoid ligament ( P = 0.412). Only sella turcica bridging showed a correlation with age ( P = 0.007). In addition, the two variants were often associated, as patients without sella turcica bridging usually did not show ossified carotico-clinoid ligament ( P < 0.001). Discussion Our results suggest an association between the two variants, and provide a novel contribution to the debate around their origin.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Logistic regression, Statistics, Statistical significance, MATLAB, Sella turcica, Empty sella syndrome, Bones of the head and neck


Bioprocesses are of critical importance in several industries such as the food and pharmaceutical industries. Despite their importance and widespread application, bioprocess models remain rather simplistic and based on unstructured models. These simple models have limitations, making it very difficult to model complex bioprocesses. With dynamic flux balance analysis (DFBA) more comprehensive bioprocess models can be obtained. DFBA simulations are difficult to carry out because they result in dynamic systems with linear programs embedded. Therefore, the use of DFBA as a modeling tool has been limited. With DFBAlab, a MATLAB code that performs efficient and reliable DFBA simulations, the use of DFBA as a modeling tool has become more accessible. Here, we illustrate with an example how to implement bioprocess models in DFBAlab.

Concepts: Operations research, Model, Computer program, MATLAB


Our aim was to evaluate changes in texture features based on variations in CT parameters on a phantom. Scans were performed with varying milliampere, kilovolt, section thickness, pitch, and acquisition mode. Forty-two texture features were extracted by using an in-house-developed Matlab program. Two-tailed t tests and false-detection analyses were performed with significant differences in texture features based on detector array configurations (Q values = 0.001-0.006), section thickness (Q values = 0.0002-0.001), and acquisition mode (Q values = 0.003-0.006). Variations in milliampere and kilovolt had no significant effect.

Concepts: Scientific method, Psychology, Sociology, Quantitative research, MATLAB, Andrew Lloyd Webber


This paper presents a non-iterative phase retrieval method from randomly phase-shifted fringe images. By combining the hyperaccurate least squares ellipse fitting method with the subspace method (usually called the principal component analysis), a fast and accurate phase retrieval algorithm is realized. The proposed method is simple, flexible, and accurate. It can be easily coded without iteration, initial guess, or tuning parameter. Its flexibility comes from the fact that totally random phase-shifting steps and any number of fringe images greater than two are acceptable without any specific treatment. Finally, it is accurate because the hyperaccurate least squares method and the modified subspace method enable phase retrieval with a small error as shown by the simulations. A MATLAB code, which is used in the experimental section, is provided within the paper to demonstrate its simplicity and easiness.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Complexity, Principal component analysis, Randomness, Code, Least squares, Singular value decomposition, MATLAB


There has recently been significant interest within the vibrational spectroscopy community to apply quantitative spectroscopic imaging techniques to histology and clinical diagnosis. However, many of the proposed methods require collecting spectroscopic images that have a similar region size and resolution to the corresponding histological images. Since spectroscopic images contain significantly more spectral samples than traditional histology, the resulting data sets can approach hundreds of gigabytes to terabytes in size. This makes them difficult to store and process, and the tools available to researchers for handling large spectroscopic data sets are limited. Fundamental mathematical tools, such as MATLAB, Octave, and SciPy, are extremely powerful but require that the data be stored in fast memory. This memory limitation becomes impractical for even modestly sized histological images, which can be hundreds of gigabytes in size. In this paper, we propose an open-source toolkit designed to perform out-of-core processing of hyperspectral images. By taking advantage of graphical processing unit (GPU) computing combined with adaptive data streaming, our software alleviates common workstation memory limitations while achieving better performance than existing applications.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Data, Computer, Graphic design, Graphics processing unit, MATLAB, Workstation, Comparison of numerical analysis software