Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Male lactation


This study examines access to workplace accommodations for breastfeeding, as mandated by the Affordable Care Act, and its associations with breastfeeding initiation and duration. We hypothesize that women with access to reasonable break time and private space to express breast milk would be more likely to breastfeed exclusively at 6 months and to continue breastfeeding for a longer duration.

Concepts: Milk, Breastfeeding, Lactation, Breast milk, Colostrum, Male lactation, Infant formula


Abstract Ectopic breast tissue is defined as glands of breast tissue located outside of the normal anatomic breasts. Historically, ectopic breast tissue has been thought to arise from a remnant of the embryonic mammary ridge along the “milk line” or the midaxillary line from the axilla to the groin, including the vulvar region. Extramammary tissue displays the same pathologic and physiologic changes as normal breast tissue and is often discovered in multiparous women as the result of swelling from lactational activity. We present a case report of a gravid patient with lactating vulvar mass and a brief historical perspective of vulvar ectopic breast tissue.

Concepts: Prolactin, Milk, Lactation, Breast, Mammary gland, Male lactation, Nipple, Milk line


Abstract Introduction: Simultaneous (SIM) breast expression saves mothers time compared with sequential (SEQ) expression, but it remains unclear whether the two methods differ in milk output efficiency and efficacy. Subjects and Methods: The Showmilk device (Medela AG, Baar, Switzerland) was used to measure milk output and milk ejection during breast expression (electric pump) in 31 Australian breastfeeding mothers of term infants (median age, 19 weeks [interquartile range, 10-33 weeks]). The order of expression type (SIM/SEQ) and breast (left/right) was randomized. Results: SIM expression yielded more milk ejections (p≤0.001) and greater amounts of milk at 2, 5, and 10 minutes (p≤0.01) and removed a greater total amount of milk (p≤0.01) and percentage of available milk (p<0.05) than SEQ expression. After SIM expression the cream content of both the overall (8.3% [p≤0.05]) and postexpression (12.6% [p≤0.001]) milk were greater. During SEQ expression, the breast expressed first had a shorter time to 50% and 80% of the total amount of milk than the breast expressed second (p≤0.05), but, overall, a similar percentage of available milk was removed from both breasts. Conclusions: SIM expression stimulated more milk ejections and was a more efficient and efficacious method of expression, yielding milk with a higher energy content.

Concepts: Infant, Randomized controlled trial, Milk, Lactation, Interquartile range, Breast, Breast milk, Male lactation


U.S. breastfeeding rates have improved, but we need to do more to support this practice.

Concepts: Milk, Breastfeeding, Lactation, Breast, Breast milk, Colostrum, Male lactation, Infant formula


Breast feeding provides a wide range of health benefits for both infants and mothers. Few studies have examined the impact of past and recent abuse of women on breastfeeding behaviour. The aims of our study were to examine whether exposure to past and recent emotional, sexual or physical abuse was associated with early breastfeeding cessation, and to assess whether a potential association differed for known and unknown perpetrators.

Concepts: Infant, Prolactin, Breastfeeding, Lactation, Baby bottle, Human behavior, Breast milk, Male lactation


The zinc (Zn) transporter ZnT2 (SLC30A2) is expressed in specialized secretory cells including breast, pancreas and prostate, and imports Zn into mitochondria and vesicles. Mutations in SLC30A2 substantially reduce milk Zn concentration ([Zn]) and cause severe Zn deficiency in exclusively breastfed infants. Recent studies show that ZnT2-null mice have low milk [Zn], in addition to profound defects in mammary gland function during lactation. Here, we used breast milk [Zn] to identify novel non-synonymous ZnT2 variants in a population of lactating women. We also asked whether specific variants induce disturbances in intracellular Zn management or cause cellular dysfunction in mammary epithelial cells. Healthy, breastfeeding women were stratified into quartiles by milk [Zn] and exonic sequencing of SLC30A2 was performed. We found that 36 % of women tested carried non-synonymous ZnT2 variants, all of whom had milk Zn levels that were distinctly above or below those in women without variants. We identified 12 novel heterozygous variants. Two variants (D(103)E and T(288)S) were identified with high frequency (9 and 16 %, respectively) and expression of T(288)S was associated with a known hallmark of breast dysfunction (elevated milk sodium/potassium ratio). Select variants (A(28)D, K(66)N, Q(71)H, D(103)E, A(105)P, Q(137)H, T(288)S and T(312)K) were characterized in vitro. Compared with wild-type ZnT2, these variants were inappropriately localized, and most resulted in either ‘loss-of-function’ or ‘gain-of-function’, and altered sub-cellular Zn pools, Zn secretion, and cell cycle check-points. Our study indicates that SLC30A2 variants are common in this population, dysregulate Zn management and can lead to breast cell dysfunction. This suggests that genetic variation in ZnT2 could be an important modifier of infant growth/development and reproductive health/disease. Importantly, milk [Zn] level may serve as a bio-reporter of breast function during lactation.

Concepts: Prolactin, Milk, Breastfeeding, Lactation, Breast, Breast milk, Mammary gland, Male lactation


An increase in the marketing and use of herbal galactagogues among breastfeeding mothers in the US has raised the issue of how best to provide support and information on the use of these products, particularly in light of limited availability of certified lactation counselors and continued suboptimal rates of breastfeeding globally. Currently, no cross-sectional data are available on the experiences and attitudes of mothers regarding the use of herbal and pharmaceutical galactagogues for lactation in the US. The findings of an online survey of 188 breastfeeding mothers on experiences with and sources of information on galactagogues are presented. Most mothers (76%) reported that while breastfeeding, they felt as though they were not making enough milk to meet the needs of their child, and yet 54% also indicated that they had not supplemented with formula. A large proportion of respondents reported utilizing galactagogues to increase lactation and finding them useful. The results indicated that most women learned about galactagogues from the Internet or by word of mouth through friends. Lactation consultants were the third-most reported sources of information on these products. While many respondents reported perceiving galactagogues as innocuous, more evidence on safety and efficacy is needed to support women properly who seek out and use them. Large-scale studies of the prevalence of galactagogue use in the US and rigorous evaluation of use globally are needed to ensure that mothers who choose to breastfeed may safely avail themselves of all options when counseling support is insufficient.

Concepts: Breastfeeding, Oxytocin, Lactation, Mother, Breast milk, Cross-sectional analysis, Male lactation, Galactagogue


To evaluate at what age parous and nonparous women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Factors taken into account for parous women were whether they had breastfed their children, and if so, the length of the lactation period. Other factors considered for both groups were obesity, family histories of cancer, smoking habits and alcohol consumption.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Prolactin, Estrogen, Breastfeeding, Lactation, Breast milk, Male lactation


Breast feeding duration has been associated with improved cognitive development in children. However, few population-based prospective studies have evaluated dose-response relationships of breastfeeding duration with language and motor development at early ages, and results are discrepant.

Concepts: Prolactin, Cognitive psychology, Lactation, Breast milk, Wine, Male lactation, Zeus, Inverted nipple


Zikavirus (ZIKV) is an emerging viral pathogen that continues to spread throughout different regions of the world. Herein we report a case that provides further evidence that ZIKV transmission can occur through breastfeeding by providing a detailed clinical, genomic, and virological case-based description.

Concepts: Milk, Breastfeeding, Lactation, Breast, World, Breast milk, Colostrum, Male lactation