Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Lymphadenopathy


Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and HCL-like disorders, including HCL variant (HCL-V) and splenic diffuse red pulp lymphoma (SDRPL), are a very heterogeneous group of mature lymphoid B-cell disorders, characterized by the identification of hairy cells, a specific genetic profile, a different clinical course and the need for appropriate treatment.

Concepts: Protein, Leukemia, Lymphadenopathy, Splenomegaly, Hairy cell leukemia


We present a case of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent traveler. Histoplasmosis was acquired in South America; its manifestations included prolonged fever, splinter hemorrhages, erythema multiforme, arthritis, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. To the best of our knowledge no splinter hemorrhages had previously been reported in a patient with histoplasmosis.

Concepts: Symptoms, Lymphadenopathy, Greatest hits albums, South America, Greatest hits, Histoplasmosis, Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis


A wide variety of surgical related uptake has been reported on F18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) scan, most of which can be differentiated from neoplastic process based on the pattern of FDG uptake and/or anatomic appearance on the integrated CT in image interpretation. A more potential problem we may be aware is postoperative reactive lymphadenitis, which may mimic regional nodal metastases on FDG PET/CT. This review presents five case examples demonstrating that postoperative reactive lymphadenitis could be a false-positive source for regional nodal metastasis on FDG PET/CT. Surgical oncologists and radiologists should be aware of reactive lymphadenitis in interpreting postoperative restaging FDG PET/CT scan when FDG avid lymphadenopathy is only seen in the lymphatic draining location from surgical site.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Positron emission tomography, Tumor, Lymphadenopathy


A 54-year-old woman presented with fever, cough, and rhinorrhea after returning from the Philippines. Examination revealed an exanthem involving the head, neck, and shoulders, small white papules on buccal mucosa bilaterally, conjunctivitis, and cervical lymphadenopathy.

Concepts: HIV, Mucous membrane, United Kingdom, Lymphadenopathy, Philippines, Common cold, Buccal mucosa


Real-time endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has earned its place as a standard of care in the evaluation of mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. It is a minimally invasive and a safe procedure with high diagnostic accuracy and efficacy. The increased usage of EBUS-TBNA worldwide has thrown light on its possible complications including death. The complications range from minor to life threatening in few and may occur either early or later in the course after the procedure. The present review summarizes the reported complications from EBUS-TBNA, their outcome and the modalities used for their management.

Concepts: Present, Time, Minimally invasive, Lymphadenopathy


A previously healthy 18-year-old woman presented with fever, malaise, and a painful left middle finger. Examination revealed an area of erythematous, confluent vesicles on the middle phalanx of the finger and associated axillary lymphadenopathy.

Concepts: HIV, Symptoms, Lymphadenopathy, Finger, Hand, Middle finger, Fingers, Infectious mononucleosis


BACKGROUND: Kikuchi Fujimoto disease (KFD), or histiocytic necrotising lymphadenitis, is a benign and self-limiting condition characterised by primarily affecting the cervical lymph nodes. Recurrent aseptic meningitis in association with KFD is extremely rare and remains a diagnostic challenge. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 28-year-old man who presented 7 episodes of aseptic meningitis associated with KFD over the course of 7 years. Histopathological findings of enlarged lymph nodes led to the diagnosis of KFD. The patient’s headache and lymphadenopathy spontaneously resolved without any sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: A diagnosis of KFD should be considered when enlarged cervical lymph nodes are observed in patients with recurrent aseptic meningitis. A long-term prognosis remains uncertain, and careful follow-up is preferred.

Concepts: HIV, AIDS, Metastasis, Medical terms, Lymph node, Lymphoma, Lymphadenopathy, Meningitis


Endobronchial ultrasonography has proven to be highly sensitive and specific in the diagnoses of patients with mediastinal and hilar adenopathy. Many of these patients are on a combination of clopidogrel (a compound that inhibits adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation) and aspirin due to neurological and/or cardiac-related comorbidities, and stopping anticoagulation may place these patients at high risk for potential complications. Our group has previously showed that thoracentesis with an 8-french catheter is safe in patients receiving clopidogrel and aspirin with low risk of complications. In this manuscript, we report the outcomes of the largest prospective multicenter series of patients undergoing endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) while receiving clopidogrel.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Platelet, Clopidogrel, Medical tests, Lymphadenopathy, Aspirin, Needle aspiration biopsy, Adenosine diphosphate


To determine the diagnostic utility of a vascularity index via superb microvascular imaging in lymph nodes of children with malignant lymphoma and acute lymphadenitis compared to normal lymph nodes.

Concepts: HIV, AIDS, Cancer, Metastasis, Lymph node, Lymphoma, Lymphadenopathy, Standing wave


Mediastinal lymphadenopathy is common finding in thoracic surgery, which often requires morphological confirmation to establish the definite diagnosis. The most frequent diagnoses are metastatic lung cancer, sarcoidosis, lymphoma, tuberculosis and other causes of granulomatous infections. Rhodococcus equi is a rare pathogen in humans, mostly affecting immunocompromised patients. We present a case with isolated mediastinal lymphadenopathy caused by Rhodococcus equi infection in a 71-year immunocompetent patient.

Concepts: AIDS, Immune system, Cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Tuberculosis, Lymphadenopathy, Sarcoidosis