Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Lumbar plexus


OBJECTIVE: To present a group of anatomical findings that may have clinical significance. DESIGN: This study is an anatomical case report of combined lumbo-pelvic peripheral nerve and muscular variants. Setting: University anatomy laboratory. Participants: One cadaveric specimen. METHODS: During routine cadaveric dissection for a graduate teaching program, unilateral femoral and bilateral sciatic nerve variants were observed in relation to the iliacus and piriformis muscle, respectively. Further dissection of both the femoral nerve and accessory slip of iliacus muscle was performed to fully expose their anatomy. RESULTS: Piercing of the femoral nerve by an accessory iliacus muscle combined with wide variations in sciatic nerve and piriformis muscle presentations may have clinical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Combined femoral and sciatic nerve variants should be considered when treatment for a lumbar disc herniation is refractory to care despite positive orthopedic testing.

Concepts: Spinal disc herniation, Biology, Muscle, Sciatic nerve, Sciatica, Lumbar plexus, Dissection, Piriformis muscle


This study aimed to describe a suitable acoustic window to facilitate access to the sciatic and femoral nerves in calves and to study the effects of their blockade with local anaesthetics. The neuroanatomical and ultrasound (US) study was performed on the cadavers of 10 calves, and the effects of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine (0.2 mL/kg) were determined in five healthy calves. The sciatic nerve in the cadavers was easily visualised as a hyperechoic band distal to the femoral greater trochanter and caudal to the femoral shaft. The femoral nerve in the cadavers was not easily identified, and was visualised as a hyperechoic oval structure situated immediately medial to the psoas major muscle and lateral to the femoral artery. The sciatic nerve was stained by methylene blue, injected under US guidance, in 9/10 cases, and the femoral nerve was stained in 6/10 cases. Sciatic nerve blockade under US guidance produced adduction of the limb with metatarsophalangeal joint flexion, while the femoral nerve blockade produced reduced weight bearing. The sciatic nerve blockade produced a reduced response to the noxious stimulus, mainly in the phalanges, proximal and distal metatarsus, tarsus and tibia and, following the femoral nerve blockade, in the medial subarea of the femur. However, femoral nerve blockade produced a more variable degree of blockade. In conclusion, US -guided anaesthetic blockade of the sciatic nerve in calves may be considered for surgery in the distal pelvic limb, although further studies are necessary to determine its clinical application.

Concepts: Anesthesia, Sartorius muscle, Nerve, Local anesthetic, Iliopsoas, Nerves of the lower limb and lower torso, Lumbar plexus, Anterior compartment of thigh


Phenazepam is a benzodiazepine that is predominantly used clinically in the former Soviet states but is being abused throughout the wider world. This study reports the tissue distribution and concentration of both phenazepam and 3-hydroxyphenazepam in 29 cases quantitated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a variety of post-mortem fluids (subclavian blood, femoral blood, cardiac blood, urine, vitreous humour) and tissues (thalamus, liver and psoas muscle). In 27 cases, the cause of death was not directly related to phenazepam (preserved (fluoride/oxalate) femoral blood phenazepam concentrations 0.007 mg/L to 0.360 mg/L (median 0.097 mg/L). In two cases, phenazepam was either a contributing factor to, or the certified cause of death (preserved (fluoride/oxalate) femoral blood 0.97 mg/L and 1.64 mg/L). The analysis of phenazepam and 3-hydroxyphenazepam in this study suggests that they are unlikely to be subject to large post-mortem redistribution and that there is no direct correlation between tissues/fluid and femoral blood concentrations. Preliminary investigations of phenazepam stability comparing femoral blood phenazepam concentrations in paired preserved (2.5% fluoride/oxalate) and unpreserved blood show that unpreserved samples show on average a 14% lower concentration of phenazepam and we recommend that phenazepam quantitation is carried out using preserved samples wherever possible. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Blood, Heart, Liquid, Tissue, Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Soviet Union, Lumbar plexus, Post-Soviet states


To investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) restriction on muscle fiber characteristics and key regulators related to protein deposition in skeletal muscle, a total of 18 growing-finishing pigs (62.30 ± 0.88 kg) were allotted to 3 groups and fed with the recommended adequate protein (AP, 16 % CP) diet, moderately restricted protein (MP, 13 % CP) diet and low protein (LP, 10 % CP) diet, respectively. The skeletal muscle of different locations in pigs, including longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM), psoas major muscle (PMM) and biceps femoris muscle (BFM) were collected and analyzed.

Concepts: Nutrition, Muscle, Cardiac muscle, Myosin, Longissimus, Lumbar plexus, Psoas major muscle, Psoas minor muscle


We performed bilateral transmuscular quadratus lumborum blocks in six cadavers using iodinated contrast and methylene blue. Computed tomography imaging was performed in four cadavers and anatomical dissection was completed in five. This demonstrated spread to the lumbar paravertebral space in 63% of specimens, laterally to the transversus abdominis muscle in 50% and caudally to the anterior superior iliac spine in 63% of specimens. There was no radiographic evidence of spread to the thoracic paravertebral space. Anatomical dissection revealed dye staining of the upper branches of the lumbar plexus and the psoas major muscle in 70% of specimens. Further clinical studies are required to confirm if the quadratus lumborum block might be a suitable alternative to lumbar plexus block.

Concepts: Biology, Transversus abdominis muscle, Anatomy, Iliac crest, Lumbar plexus, Dissection, Iliohypogastric nerve, Psoas major muscle


Perineural spread is not uncommon feature in carcinoma of the head and neck. On the contrary, perineural spread in pelvic malignancies has been rarely reported. This report is the first report about perineural spread of obturator nerve and lumbosacral plexus from primary vaginal cancer.

Concepts: Nervous system, Head and neck anatomy, Cancer, Lung cancer, Carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Lumbar plexus, Obturator foramen


The case is presented of a post-lung transplant patient, ASA III, proposed for orchiectomy due to testicular cancer. A combination of iliohypogastric (ILH), ilioinguinal (ILI) and genitofemoral (GF) nerve block together with sedation was used as anaesthetic technique. The inguinal area received sensory innervation mainly from ILI, ILH and GF nerves. The genital branch of the GF nerve supplies innervation to skin of the anterosuperior portion of the scrotum. When performing the echo-guided block of GF nerve, it is necessary to identify the spermatic cord, and administer the local anaesthetic on the inside and periphery of the cord. Peripheral nerve blocks are a valid option for complex patients. Its main advantage is the anaesthesia and analgesia level that it provides without the haemodynamic instability associated with general or neuraxial anaesthesia. GF nerve block provides hemi-scrotal anaesthesia, allowing manipulation and intervention in the inguinal-scrotal area, complementing the anaesthesia provided by ILI and ILH nerve blocks.

Concepts: Testicle, Anesthesia, Scrotum, Local anesthetic, Nerve block, Lumbar plexus, Spermatic cord, Genital branch of genitofemoral nerve


We report on an endoscopic triple neurectomy in a female patient with vulvar carcinoma metastasized to the left groin with refractory neuropathic inguinodynia. Using a retroperitoneoscopic approach we resected the ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, and genitofemoral nerves. The inguinodynia improved significantly; especially the reduced ability to walk was enhanced considerably. Endoscopic triple neurectomy could be a useful therapeutic option in refractory inguinal pain caused by local tumor manifestation.

Concepts: Cancer, Inguinal hernia, Pain, Peripheral neuropathy, Lumbar plexus, Vulvar cancer, Iliohypogastric nerve, Ilioinguinal nerve


The clinical reliability and reproducibility of ultrasound-guided lumbar plexus blocks is not established in pediatric populations. We present the results of a combined nerve stimulation ultrasound-guided lumbar plexus block using the vertebral body, transverse process, and psoas muscle as landmarks on a transverse lumbar paravertebral sonogram with mid-axillary transducer placement, “shamrock method,” in children and adolescents.

Concepts: Scientific method, Vertebra, Neck, Process, Block, Lumbar plexus, Psoas major muscle, Iliacus muscle


Objective To evaluate the clinical application of the minimally invasive modified pedicle screw-rod fixator for unstable pelvic ring injuries, including its feasibility, merits, and limitations. Methods Twenty-three patients (13 males, 10 females; average age, 36.3 years) with unstable pelvic ring injuries underwent anterior fixation using a modified pedicle screw-rod fixator with or without posterior fixation using a transiliac internal fixator. The clinical findings were assessed using Majeed scores. The quality of reduction was evaluated using the Matta criteria. Results Clinical results at 1 year postoperatively were excellent in 14 patients, good in 7, and fair in 2. The two patients with fair results had intermittent pain at the sacroiliac joint because of the posterior implant. One woman complained of persistent pain at the pubic tubercle during sexual intercourse. Iatrogenic neuropraxia of the unilateral lateral femoral cutaneous nerve occurred in three patients. Unilateral femoral nerve palsy occurred in one patient. The quality of fracture reduction was excellent in 12 patients, good in 8, and fair in 3. Heterotopic ossification occurred in eight patients; all were asymptomatic. Conclusions Minimally invasive modified pedicle screw-rod fixation is an effective alternative treatment for pelvic ring injuries.

Concepts: Medical terms, Sex, Minimally invasive, Pelvis, Sacroiliac joint, Femoral nerve, Lumbar plexus, Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh