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Concept: Ligaments


Clinical features of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are important for its prevention, diagnosis and treatment. However, few studies have reported such data, especially in China. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of ACL injury on a large cohort.

Concepts: Cultural studies, Ligaments, Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, Ligament, Cruciate ligament, Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament injury, Anterior cruciate ligament



The primary objective was to calculate the rate of return to sport (RTS) following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in elite athletes. Secondary objectives were to estimate the time taken to RTS, calculate rates of ACL graft rupture, evaluate postsurgical athletic performance and identify determinants of RTS.

Concepts: Rate of return, Rates, Ligaments, Ligament, Cruciate ligament, Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, Anterior cruciate ligament



Four normal variants of meniscomeniscal ligaments have been previously reported in the anatomy, arthroscopy, and radiology literature. The anterior and posterior transverse meniscal ligaments are the 2 most commonly observed, with a reported frequency of 58% and 1% to 4%, respectively. The last 2 variants include the medial and lateral oblique meniscomeniscal ligaments and account for a combined frequency of 1% to 4%.This article describes 2 patients with unilateral meniscomeniscal ligaments observed on magnetic resonance imaging. One patient had a unilateral lateral meniscomeniscal ligament extending from the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus to the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus and underwent conservative management. The second patient had a unilateral medial meniscomeniscal ligament with a concomitant medial meniscus tear and underwent arthroscopic intervention. The ligament was stable intraoperatively and, therefore, was not resected. Both patients had resolution of their symptoms.These 2 variants are additions to the previously described 4 normal intermeniscal ligament variants. The functions of the 2 new variants described in this article are poorly understood but are thought to involve meniscal stability. Accurate descriptions of normal variants can lead to the proper management of anomalous rare structures and prevent false imaging interpretations because these structures can closely mimic a double posterior cruciate ligament sign. Furthermore, an understanding of the various normal variants of intermeniscal ligaments can prevent unnecessary surgery that could result in further iatrogenic meniscus injury.

Concepts: Medial meniscus, Ligament, Tear of meniscus, Radiology, Ligaments, Magnetic resonance imaging, Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament


The aim of this study was to examine serum non-coding RNAs as potential biomarkers for cartilage damage associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury.

Concepts: Ligaments, Osteoarthritis, Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, Anterior cruciate ligament injury, Cruciate ligament, Ligament, Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament


The purpose of this study was to report the frequency with which posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries occurred in combination with peri-articular fractures around the knee, and to determine the frequency with which the detection of these PCL injuries was delayed (i.e., detected in an outpatient clinic after fracture treatment).

Concepts: Ligaments, Hospital, Posterior cruciate ligament, Drawer test, Bone fracture, Cruciate ligament, Anterior cruciate ligament, Knee


Rates of return to pre-injury sport following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are less than might be expected from standard outcome measures and there appears to be a rapid decline in sporting participation after two to three years. There are many factors that influence whether an individual will return to sport following this type of surgery. They include not only surgical details and rehabilitation, but also social and psychological factors, as well as demographic characteristics. Age is of particular importance with older patients being less likely to resume their pre-injury sport. It is important that future research clearly identify the pre-injury characteristics of the study cohort when investigating return to sport, and also that there is consistent and precise terminology used to report rates of return to sporting activities. Little is known about how to determine when it is safe to return to sport following ACL reconstruction or how to predict whether an athlete will be able to successfully return to sport. Finally, it needs to be recognised that return to sport following ACL reconstruction is associated with a risk of further injury and the development of osteoarthritis.

Concepts: Ligaments, Hamstring, Anterior cruciate ligament injury, Cruciate ligament, Ligament, Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament


Untreated ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury of the thumb metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) can lead to long-term pain and functional limitations.Detection of a UCL injury involves sequential examination of true and accessory ligaments and comparison with the uninjured side.Acute partial UCL injuries can be successfully treated nonoperatively.Acute complete or displaced UCL injuries can be successfully treated with operative repair.In cases of chronic UCL injury, treatment options include static and dynamic reconstructions.If painful arthrosis is present with chronic UCL instability, salvage may be performed with MCPJ fusion.

Concepts: Skeletal system, Bone, Ligaments, Medial collateral ligament, Metacarpophalangeal joint, Joint, Ligament, Osteoarthritis


OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to describe the MRI findings in the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) analogous to mucoid degeneration in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL); to correlate MRI findings in the PCL with ligamentous stability; to differentiate the PCL tram-track appearance from the appearance of PCL tears; and to emphasize the coexistence of PCL and ACL mucoid degeneration, cruciate ganglia, and meniscal cysts. CONCLUSION. The tram-track PCL appearance commonly coexists with ACL mucoid degeneration; ganglia; and, less frequently, meniscal cysts. Both PCL tears and MRI findings suggestive of PCL mucoid degeneration show ligament thickening and increased PCL signal intensity. Tram-track PCLs are usually asymptomatic and typically have no ligamentous instability.

Concepts: Correlation and dependence, Ligaments of the lower limb, Ligaments, Drawer test, Cruciate ligament, Ligament, Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament