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Concept: Lesion

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Background Bronchoscopy is frequently nondiagnostic in patients with pulmonary lesions suspected to be lung cancer. This often results in additional invasive testing, although many lesions are benign. We sought to validate a bronchial-airway gene-expression classifier that could improve the diagnostic performance of bronchoscopy. Methods Current or former smokers undergoing bronchoscopy for suspected lung cancer were enrolled at 28 centers in two multicenter prospective studies (AEGIS-1 and AEGIS-2). A gene-expression classifier was measured in epithelial cells collected from the normal-appearing mainstem bronchus to assess the probability of lung cancer. Results A total of 639 patients in AEGIS-1 (298 patients) and AEGIS-2 (341 patients) met the criteria for inclusion. A total of 43% of bronchoscopic examinations were nondiagnostic for lung cancer, and invasive procedures were performed after bronchoscopy in 35% of patients with benign lesions. In AEGIS-1, the classifier had an area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 0.83), a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI, 83 to 92), and a specificity of 47% (95% CI, 37 to 58). In AEGIS-2, the classifier had an AUC of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.80), a sensitivity of 89% (95% CI, 84 to 92), and a specificity of 47% (95% CI, 36 to 59). The combination of the classifier plus bronchoscopy had a sensitivity of 96% (95% CI, 93 to 98) in AEGIS-1 and 98% (95% CI, 96 to 99) in AEGIS-2, independent of lesion size and location. In 101 patients with an intermediate pretest probability of cancer, the negative predictive value of the classifier was 91% (95% CI, 75 to 98) among patients with a nondiagnostic bronchoscopic examination. Conclusions The gene-expression classifier improved the diagnostic performance of bronchoscopy for the detection of lung cancer. In intermediate-risk patients with a nondiagnostic bronchoscopic examination, a negative classifier score provides support for a more conservative diagnostic approach. (Funded by Allegro Diagnostics and others; AEGIS-1 and AEGIS-2 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01309087 and NCT00746759 .).

Concepts: Pulmonology, Lung, Lung cancer, Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value, Sensitivity and specificity, Carcinoma, Lesion

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The current standard practice of lung lesion diagnosis often leads to inconclusive results, requiring additional diagnostic follow up procedures that are invasive and often unnecessary due to the high benign rate in such lesions (Chest 143:e78S-e92, 2013). The Percepta bronchial genomic classifier was developed and clinically validated to provide more accurate classification of lung nodules and lesions that are inconclusive by bronchoscopy, using bronchial brushing specimens (N Engl J Med 373:243-51, 2015, BMC Med Genomics 8:18, 2015). The analytical performance of the Percepta test is reported here.

Concepts: Solitary pulmonary nodule, Standard, Lesion

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The characteristic lesion of alopecia areata is a smooth bald patch on the scalp. When there is no bald surface it is called alopecia areata incognita. To date, all cases of alopecia areata reported as so-called ‘incognito’ have shown a diffuse involvement of the scalp as in acute telogen effluvium. Recently, we have observed two patients who showed localised hair thinning of the scalp without bald spots. Histopathologically, the lesions were typical of alopecia areata with peribulbar lymphocytic infiltrates. The response to corticosteroid treatment and its clinical course were also compatible with alopecia areata.

Concepts: Anatomical pathology, Corticosteroid, Ablative brain surgery, Lesion, Baldness, Alopecia areata, Conditions of the skin appendages, Telogen effluvium

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The field efficacy and safety of a single-dose inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine, Suvaxyn MH-One, was evaluated in 4-5-day-old piglets on a commercial farm with a history of Mycoplasma disease in Southern Germany. The piglets were injected intramuscularly with the vaccine or saline (control group) and raised under commercial conditions to slaughter weight. The efficacy of the vaccine was determined by comparing the lung lesions associated with infection by M. hyopneumoniae in control and vaccinated pigs post mortem. In this analysis the vaccinated pigs had the lower mean percentage lung lesion at 5% compared to 9% in controls. Of the vaccinated pigs 52.3% were shown to have low levels of lung lesions between 0% and 5% and no more than 5.4% were shown to have levels above 20%. In contrast, the pigs administered saline showed 36.5% in the lower category (0-5%), while 18.3% showed lesions greater than 20%. There were significant differences in the mean body weight of pigs at the final two weight measurements at approximately 21 weeks and 26 weeks of age, with those receiving Suvaxyn MH-One being on average 5kg heavier at each time point. There was also a significant increase in average daily gain in the vaccinated animals compared to the control group, particularly in the period from vaccination to the final two body weight measurements on day 138 and 166, from weaning at day 28 to the final two body measurements and from mid-way during finishing at day 84 to the final two body weight measurements. Vaccination had no adverse impact on appetite, although small numbers of vaccinated and control pigs did show mild signs of coughing, sneezing, respiratory distress or depression. There was no adverse impact on rectal temperatures and no signs of injection site reactions during the course of the study. We can conclude that vaccination with Suvaxyn MH-One to pigs at less than 1 week of age is effective in reducing lung lesions resulting from M. hyopneumoniae and also aids growth performance by reducing weight losses and improving average daily gain.

Concepts: Immune system, Vaccine, Vaccination, Mycoplasma, Lesion, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

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BACKGROUND: The placebo-controlled phase of the PreCISe study showed that glatiramer acetate delayed onset of clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and brain lesions on MRI. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of early versus delayed glatiramer acetate treatment in the open-label phase of PreCISe. METHODS: Patients with a clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of MS with unifocal manifestation and ≥2 T2-weighted brain lesions were randomized to receive glatiramer acetate 20 mg/d (early-treatment, n=198) or placebo (delayed-treatment, n=211) for 36 months or until conversion to CDMS, followed by open-label glatiramer acetate treatment for two years. RESULTS: Early glatiramer acetate treatment reduced CDMS conversion risk by 41% (hazard ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.44-0.80; p=0.0005) versus delayed-treatment, and was associated with a 972-day delay (185%) in conversion to CDMS, less brain atrophy (-28%, p=0.0209), fewer new T2 lesions/year (-42%, <0.0001) and lower T2 lesion volume (-22%, p=0.0005) versus delayed treatment. Adverse events were consistent with the established safety profile of glatiramer acetate. CONCLUSIONS: Effects of early glatiramer acetate treatment on the rate of conversion to CDMS and on MRI measures of disease activity and lesion burden support initiating glatiramer acetate treatment soon after the first clinical symptoms suggestive of MS and continuing treatment to sustain benefits.

Concepts: Anatomical pathology, Magnetic resonance imaging, Multiple sclerosis, Clinically isolated syndrome, Placebo, Ablative brain surgery, Lesion, Glatiramer acetate

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OBJECTIVES: To assess in a large population of patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) the relevance of brain lesion location and frequency in predicting 1-year conversion to multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In this multicenter, retrospective study, clinical and MRI data at onset and clinical follow-up at 1 year were collected for 1,165 patients with CIS. On T2-weighted MRI, we generated lesion probability maps of white matter (WM) lesion location and frequency. Voxelwise analyses were performed with a nonparametric permutation-based approach (p < 0.05, cluster-corrected). RESULTS: In CIS patients with hemispheric, multifocal, and brainstem/cerebellar onset, lesion probability map clusters were seen in clinically eloquent brain regions. Significant lesion clusters were not found in CIS patients with optic nerve and spinal cord onset. At 1 year, clinically definite MS developed in 26% of patients. The converting group, despite a greater baseline lesion load compared with the nonconverting group (7 ± 8.1 cm(3) vs 4.6 ± 6.7 cm(3), p < 0.001), showed less widespread lesion distribution (18% vs 25% of brain voxels occupied by lesions). High lesion frequency was found in the converting group in projection, association, and commissural WM tracts, with larger clusters being in the corpus callosum, corona radiata, and cingulum. CONCLUSIONS: Higher frequency of lesion occurrence in clinically eloquent WM tracts can characterize CIS subjects with different types of onset. The involvement of specific WM tracts, in particular those traversed by fibers involved in motor function and near the corpus callosum, seems to be associated with a higher risk of clinical conversion to MS in the short term.

Concepts: Magnetic resonance imaging, Multiple sclerosis, Cerebrum, Clinically isolated syndrome, White matter, Corpus callosum, Lesion, Optic nerve

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Purpose: To evaluate the diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging characteristics of nonmalignant lesion subtypes assessed as false-positive findings at conventional breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods: This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study had institutional review board approval, and the need for informed patient consent was waived. Lesions assessed as Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category 4 or 5 at clinical dynamic contrast material-enhanced MR imaging that subsequently proved nonmalignant at biopsy were retrospectively reviewed. One hundred seventy-five nonmalignant breast lesions in 165 women were evaluated. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) from DW imaging (b = 0, 600 sec/mm(2)) were calculated for each lesion and were compared between subtypes and with an ADC threshold of 1.81 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec (determined in a prior study to achieve 100% sensitivity). Results: Eighty-one (46%) lesions exhibited ADCs greater than the predetermined threshold. The most prevalent lesion subtypes with mean ADCs above the threshold were fibroadenoma ([1.94 ± 0.38 {standard deviation}] × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec; n = 30), focal fibrosis ([1.84 ± 0.48] × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec; n = 19), normal tissue ([1.81 ± 0.47] × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec; n = 13), apocrine metaplasia ([2.01 ± 0.38] × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec; n = 13), usual ductal hyperplasia ([1.83 ± 0.49] × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec; n = 12), and inflammation ([1.95 ± 0.46] × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec; n = 10). Atypical ductal hyperplasia ([1.48 ± 0.36] × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec; n = 23) was the most common lesion subtype with ADC below the threshold. Lymph nodes exhibited the lowest mean ADC of all nonmalignant lesions ([1.28 ± 0.23] × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec; n = 4). High-risk lesions (atypical ductal hyperplasia and lobular neoplasia) showed significantly lower ADCs than other benign lesions (P < .0001) and were the most common lesions with ADCs below the threshold. Conclusion: Assessing ADC along with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging features may decrease the number of avoidable false-positive findings at breast MR imaging and reduce the number of preventable biopsies. The ability of DW imaging to help differentiate high-risk lesions requiring additional work-up from other nonmalignant subtypes may further improve patient care. © RSNA, 2012 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.12112672/-/DC1.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Anatomical pathology, Magnetic resonance imaging, Medical signs, Mammography, Lesion, Breast lump

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Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia (FFCD) is a rare benign bone lesion, which mainly occurs in the proximal tibia. In the upper extremity, only 21 cases have been reported so far and 14 of these involved the ulna. We present an additional case of FFCD in the distal ulna that showed progressive bowing of the right forearm and the radial head dislocation. Resection of the abnormal tissue, osteotomy of the radius and ulna, and gradual lengthening of the ulna were performed. On the basis of the previously published data of 14 cases and our data, we have summarized the etiology, clinical features, natural history, and treatment of FFCD in the ulna.

Concepts: Ulna, Forearm, Upper limb, Wrist, Lesion, Ulnar nerve, Radial artery

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To assess whether migraine in the general population is associated with increased risk of systemic right-to-left shunts (RLS) and whether RLS are associated with increased prevalence of brain infarcts and persistent recurrence of migraine attacks at older age.

Concepts: Traumatic brain injury, Ischemia, Lesion

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To assess the contributions of cortico-juxtacortical and corpus callosum lesions to multiple sclerosis diagnosis and to compare the value of ≥1 vs ≥3 periventricular lesions in clinically isolated syndromes (CIS).

Concepts: Multiple sclerosis, Cerebrum, Corpus callosum, Ablative brain surgery, Lesion, Agenesis of the corpus callosum