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Concept: Ladd's bands

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Midgut malrotation is an anomaly of intestinal rotation that occurs during fetal development and usually presents in the neonatal period. We present a rare case of malrotation in a 14-year-old patient who presented with cramping, generalized right abdominal pain, and vomiting for a duration of one day. A computed tomography abdominal scan and upper gastrointestinal contrast studies showed malrotation of the small bowel without volvulus. Laparoscopy revealed typical Ladd’s bands and a distended flabby third and fourth duodenal portion extrinsically obstructing the misplaced duodeno-jejunal junction. The Ladd procedure, including widening of the mesenteric base and appendectomy, was performed. Symptoms completely resolved in a half-year follow up period. Patients with midgut malrotation may present with vague abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, or intestinal ischemia. The laparoscopic Ladd procedure is feasible and safe, and it appears to be as effective as the standard open Ladd procedure in the diagnosis and treatment of teenage or adult patients with intestinal malrotation.

Concepts: Abdominal pain, Small intestine, Bowel obstruction, Abdomen, Jejunum, Volvulus, Intestinal malrotation, Ladd's bands

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Intestinal malrotation can lead to volvulus resulting in necrosis, sepsis, and death. For symptomatic patients, treatment includes the Ladd procedure. However, debate remains regarding the timing and need for intervention for asymptomatic infants. We evaluated our experience with Ladd procedures including a clinical practice of prophylactic surgery for asymptomatic patients.

Concepts: Medicine, Death, Surgery, Physician, Asymptomatic, Volvulus, Intestinal malrotation, Ladd's bands

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Introduction Before gastrostomy tube (GT) placement, many pediatric surgeons request that children undergo a preoperative upper gastrointestinal contrast study (UGI) to evaluate for the presence of either gastroesophageal reflux (GER) or intestinal malrotation. We hypothesized that routine UGI is unnecessary before GT placement. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective review of 500 consecutive children who had a GT placed in a single children’s hospital from 2009 to 2012. Results There were 403 children who underwent UGI before planned GT placement; 196 of which were placed during the same hospitalization. Only 1/403 (0.25%) diagnosis of malrotation was identified on UGI, and treated with a Ladd procedure at the time of GT placement. There were 154 children who had evidence of reflux on UGI; 97 underwent an antireflux procedure in conjunction with GT placement. An additional 57 children with no evidence of reflux on UGI also underwent a concurrent antireflux procedure. Of these 160 children who underwent concurrent fundoplication, only 3 (2%) had a confirmatory pH probe study performed before GT placement. Conclusions We found that in children undergoing routine preoperative UGI before GT placement (1) the risk of malrotation is less than 1%; (2) the decision to perform an antireflux procedure weakly correlates with the UGI findings of GER; and (3) one in five patients without radiographic GER still underwent concomitant fundoplication with or without confirmatory pH probe study. We conclude that the practice of routine UGI before laparoscopic gastrostomy placement in children is likely unnecessary.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Retrospective, Gastroenterology, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Intestinal malrotation, Ladd's bands

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Objective Intestinal malrotation classically presents in the neonatal period with bilious vomiting. However, population studies suggest that up to two-thirds of these patients are diagnosed later in childhood or in adulthood. Increased morbidity in the adult population has been reported. Local experience suggested that surgery was technically more difficult in older children and led to the hypothesis that it would be associated with increased morbidity. Methods A retrospective case note analysis was performed on all children presenting with intestinal malrotation to a tertiary referral center between January 2002 and November 2014. Case notes and operation records were reviewed and those who underwent laparotomy for confirmed malrotation were included. Children were grouped as infants (< 1 year) and older (> 1 year). The primary outcome was total emergency reoperation rate. Secondary outcomes were requirement for a bypass at reoperation and mortality. Results A total of 131 children with malrotation were identified (104 infants, 27 older children; 78 males; age range, 0-16 years). Overall, 13 patients had emergency reoperation following initial Ladd procedure (6 infants and 7 older children). Risk for reoperation was significantly higher in older children (p = 0.005) and additionally a bypass procedure was more often required in older children than infants (4 children, 2 infants, p = 0.016). Adhesiolysis was required on four occasions and redo Ladd procedure in two; these were evenly distributed between both groups. One child was found to have distal bowel obstruction at reoperation. There were three deaths (2.3%), all in the infant group. One was directly associated with malrotation with extensive bowel necrosis. The other two died of unrelated sepsis several months later. Conclusions Malrotation surgery in older children is associated with a significantly higher emergency reoperation rate. The primary duodenal bypass procedure should always be considered with longstanding chronic intermittent obstruction associated with malrotation if the simple Ladd procedure is deemed inadequate.

Concepts: Infant, Demography, Surgery, Constipation, Bowel obstruction, Volvulus, Intestinal malrotation, Ladd's bands