SciCombinator

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Concept: Lactobacillus reuteri

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Treatment with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri has been shown to prevent dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. This is partly due to reduced P-selectin-dependent leukocyte- and platelet-endothelial cell interactions, however, the mechanism behind this protective effect is still unknown. In the present study a combination of culture dependent and molecular based T-RFLP profiling was used to investigate the influence of L. reuteri on the colonic mucosal barrier of DSS treated rats. It was first demonstrated that the two colonic mucus layers of control animals had different bacterial community composition and that fewer bacteria resided in the firmly adherent layer. During DSS induced colitis, the number of bacteria in the inner firmly adherent mucus layer increased and bacterial composition of the two layers no longer differed. In addition, induction of colitis dramatically altered the microbial composition in both firmly and loosely adherent mucus layers. Despite protecting against colitis, treatment with L. reuteri did not improve the integrity of the mucus layer or prevent distortion of the mucus microbiota caused by DSS. However, L. reuteri decreased the bacterial translocation from the intestine to mesenteric lymph nodes during DSS treatment, which might be an important part of the mechanisms by which L. reuteri ameliorates DSS induced colitis.

Concepts: Archaea, Bacteria, Gut flora, Microbiology, Digestive system, Probiotic, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus reuteri

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There are few carefully-designed studies investigating the safety of individual probiotics approved under Investigational New Drug policies.

Concepts: Gut flora, Microbiology, Probiotic, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillaceae, Lactobacillus reuteri, Probiotics

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IMPORTANCE Infantile colic, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation are the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders that lead to referral to a pediatrician during the first 6 months of life and are often responsible for hospitalization, feeding changes, use of drugs, parental anxiety, and loss of parental working days with relevant social consequences. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether oral supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 during the first 3 months of life can reduce the onset of colic, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation in term newborns and thereby reduce the socioeconomic impact of these conditions. DESIGN A prospective, multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was performed on term newborns (age <1 week) born at 9 different neonatal units in Italy between September 1, 2010, and October 30, 2012. SETTING Parents were asked to record in a structured diary the number of episodes of regurgitation, duration of inconsolable crying (minutes per day), number of evacuations per day, number of visits to pediatricians, feeding changes, hospitalizations, visits to a pediatric emergency department for a perceived health emergency, pharmacologic interventions, and loss of parental working days. PARTICIPANTS In total, 589 infants were randomly allocated to receive L reuteri DSM 17938 or placebo daily for 90 days. INTERVENTIONS Prophylactic use of probiotic. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Reduction of daily crying time, regurgitation, and constipation during the first 3 months of life. Cost-benefit analysis of the probiotic supplementation. RESULTS At 3 months of age, the mean duration of crying time (38 vs 71 minutes; P < .01), the mean number of regurgitations per day (2.9 vs 4.6; P < .01), and the mean number of evacuations per day (4.2 vs 3.6; P < .01) for the L reuteri DSM 17938 and placebo groups, respectively, were significantly different. The use of L reuteri DSM 17938 resulted in an estimated mean savings per patient of €88 (US $118.71) for the family and an additional €104 (US $140.30) for the community. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Prophylactic use of L reuteri DSM 17938 during the first 3 months of life reduced the onset of functional gastrointestinal disorders and reduced private and public costs for the management of this condition. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01235884.

Concepts: Infant, Clinical trial, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Pediatrics, Probiotic, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Baby colic

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Abstract A new gut bacterial adhesion model has been developed. For this, a continuous-flow bioreactor packed with bacteria-coated beads was designed to simulate the gut lining and other features. In vitro model efficacy shows successful bacterial cell gut adhesions: bacterial adhesion was higher with mucin-alginate compared to controls. In feasibility study, adhesion of Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 and Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 701359 was investigated for their metabolic activities for bile salt. Bile salt hydrolase (BSH)-active Lactobacillus reuteri exerted higher activity than non-BSH-active L. fermentum. This model has potential use in gut health, probiotic, bacterial cell gut adhesion and other delivery applications.

Concepts: Bacteria, Gut flora, Microbiology, Probiotic, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillaceae, Bacteriology, Lactobacillus reuteri

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3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde (3HPA) is an important specialty chemical which can be produced from glycerol using resting cells of Lactobacillus reuteri. This biocatalytic route, however, suffers from substrate- and product-mediated loss of enzyme activity within 2 h of biotransformation. In order to overcome the inhibitory effects of 3HPA, complex formation with sodium bisulfite was investigated, optimized and applied for in situ capture of the aldehyde during biotransformation of glycerol in a fed-batch process. As a result, the activity of the cells was maintained for at least 18 h. The 3HPA produced per gram cell dry weight was increased 5.7 times compared to the batch production process, and 2.2 times compared to fed-batch process without in situ complex formation. This approach may have potential for production and in situ removal of 3HPA after further process development. Biotechnol. Bioeng. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Bacteria, Enzyme, Microbiology, Biotechnology, Probiotic, Lactobacillus, Chemical engineering, Lactobacillus reuteri

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To investigate whether the specific strains of Lactobacillus reuteri modulates the metabolic syndrome in Apoe-/- mice.

Concepts: Gut flora, Nutrition, Microbiology, Metabolic syndrome, Probiotic, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillaceae, Lactobacillus reuteri

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To evaluate the effect of oral Lactobacillus reuteri (L reuteri) first on the incidence and severity of Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and second on sepsis.

Concepts: Pediatrics, Probiotic, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Baby colic

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The study aimed to evaluate the effects of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 strain supplementation in patients suffering from Systemic Nickel Allergy Syndrome, in terms of modulation of faecal LAB population linked to a reduction of GI and cutaneous symptoms and to an increase of patient’s quality of life.

Concepts: Bacteria, Gut flora, Microbiology, Symptom, Lactic acid, Probiotic, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus reuteri

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Lactobacillus reuteri DSM17938 has shown promise in managing colic, but conflicting study results have prevented a consensus on whether it is truly effective.

Concepts: Probiotic, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Baby colic