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Concept: Jim Crow laws


Women and African Americans-groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities-may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying-with the use of a recently released online tool-the frequency of the words “brilliant” and “genius” in over 14 million reviews on, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women’s and African Americans' representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words “brilliant” and “genius” were used more frequently on also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students' educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor’s degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field’s focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity.

Concepts: Race, White American, Southern United States, Jim Crow laws, Democratic Party, Hip hop music


African Americans are especially at risk of hypertension and dementia. Antihypertensive medications reduce the risk of cardiovascular events, but may also reduce the risk of dementia.

Concepts: Southern United States, Jim Crow laws, Democratic Party


Over the past two decades, the demographic profile of MDMA (ecstasy/molly) users has changed. In particular, African American MDMA use has risen in some cities. One explanation of this new trend is the drug’s recent popularity (as molly) in hip-hop/rap (HHR) music. Several top rappers endorse the drug as a way to have fun or get women “loose.” There are currently no studies, however, that investigate the extent to which African American MDMA users listen to HHR music or the influence that these pro-MDMA messages have on their use of the drug. To address this gap, the current study used survey data to (a) identify the extent to which HHR music is listened to by African American MDMA users and (b) assess the perceived influence of HHR music on their decision to begin using. Qualitative interview data are also presented to contextualize the influence of these messages on their use of MDMA. The findings of this study suggest that African American MDMA users are high consumers of HHR music and that pro-MDMA messages in HHR music are influencing their expectations of the drug and their decision to initiate use. These findings add to the limited amount of research on African American MDMA use and have the potential to inform future interventions.

Concepts: African American, Southern United States, Funk, Jim Crow laws, Democratic Party, Hip hop music, Country music


To evaluate an epigenetic assay performed on tissue from negative prostate biopsies in a group of African American (AA) men undergoing repeat biopsy, and to compare accuracy for predicting repeat biopsy outcome to prior studies conducted in predominantly Caucasian populations.

Concepts: Cancer, Demographics of the United States, White American, African American, Southern United States, Prostate biopsy, Jim Crow laws, Democratic Party


Innovative approaches are needed to promote physical activity among young adult overweight and obese African American women. We sought to describe key elements that African American women desire in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool to promote physical activity among overweight and obese young adult African American women.

Concepts: Obesity, Physical exercise, Overweight, African American, Native Americans in the United States, Southern United States, American Civil War, Jim Crow laws


Stroke has increased among young adults. In addition, the accuracy by which African Americans perceive their risk of stroke is unclear. The purpose of the study was to examine the accuracy of perceived stroke risk of African Americans aged 19-54 years. A descriptive-correlational design was used. Accuracy of perceived stroke risk was determined by comparing perceived risk with actual risk. Participants (N = 66) had a mean age of 43.3 (SD = 9.4) years and were mostly female, high school graduates, and unemployed. Most (66%) perceived themselves as having no/low risk of future stroke. However, actual risk factors averaged 2.98 + 1.63 of 8, placing 59% of the sample in the moderate-high category of actual stroke risk. Comparisons of perceived and actual risk showed that 44% underestimated their risk, 47% were accurate, and 9% overestimated their risk. Strategies to address risk misperceptions should be explored to improve accuracy of perceived stroke risk and culturally relevant interventions to reduce stroke among African Americans.

Concepts: Risk, High school, Southern United States, Jim Crow laws, Democratic Party


To describe the use of social media during the antepartum and postpartum periods among first-time African American mothers and their support persons.

Concepts: Southern United States, Jim Crow laws, Democratic Party


Background:African Americans typically underuse hospice care; this study explores their end of life attitudes.

Concepts: Southern United States, Jim Crow laws, Democratic Party


Obesity prevalence is higher among African American adolescent (AAA) girls than among non-black girls. Lower levels of physical activity (PA) likely contribute to this disparity; this may be impacted by hairstyle concerns.

Concepts: Southern United States, Jim Crow laws, Democratic Party, Hip hop music


African Americans (AAs) with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have been reported to have fewer revascularization attempts and poorer patency and limb salvage (LS) rates than Caucasians (CAUs). This study compared the outcomes between AA and CAU men with chronic limb ischemia.

Concepts: African American, Southern United States, Jim Crow laws, Democratic Party, Hip hop music