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Concept: Inguinal hernia


The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided transversalis fascia plane block (TFP) compared to anterior transversus abdominis plane block (TAP-A) for post-operative analgesia in outpatient unilateral inguinal hernia repair.

Concepts: Inguinal hernia, Transversus abdominis muscle, Iliac crest, Transversalis fascia


Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most commonly performed operations in the world, yet little is known about the genetic mechanisms that predispose individuals to develop inguinal hernias. We perform a genome-wide association analysis of surgically confirmed inguinal hernias in 72,805 subjects (5,295 cases and 67,510 controls) and confirm top associations in an independent cohort of 92,444 subjects with self-reported hernia repair surgeries (9,701 cases and 82,743 controls). We identify four novel inguinal hernia susceptibility loci in the regions of EFEMP1, WT1, EBF2 and ADAMTS6. Moreover, we observe expression of all four genes in mouse connective tissue and network analyses show an important role for two of these genes (EFEMP1 and WT1) in connective tissue maintenance/homoeostasis. Our findings provide insight into the aetiology of hernia development and highlight genetic pathways for studies of hernia development and its treatment.

Concepts: Gene, Genetics, Gene expression, Surgery, Inguinal hernia, Hernia, Genome-wide association study, Hernias


A rare case of abdominal pain secondary to endometriosis in a 52-year-old man with cirrhosis is presented. The patient had a repair of recurrent inguinal hernia 7 months prior to presentation. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a 4.5 cm × 2.5 cm cystic mass attached to the urinary bladder and the inguinal area. The mass pathology showed a cystic lumen of diameter of 1.5 cm filled with old blood and surrounded by thick muscular mass. Microscopically, the lesion consisted of thick smooth muscle fibers that concentrically surround a central lumen that is bordered by endometrium such as glands and stroma. Immunostains were positive for estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors in the glandular component and for CD10 in the stroma, which is consistent with endometriosis.

Concepts: Muscle, Cardiac muscle, Urinary bladder, Urinary system, Inguinal hernia, Smooth muscle, Muscular system, Endometrium


Limited resources in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) drive tremendous innovation in medicine, as well as in other fields. It is not often recognized that several important surgical tools and methods, widely used in high-income countries, have their origins in LMICs. Surgical care around the world stands much to gain from these innovations. In this paper, we provide a short review of some of these succesful innovations and their origins that have had an important impact in healthcare delivery worldwide.Review: Examples of LMIC innovations that have been adapted in high-income countries include the Bogota bag for temporary abdominal wound closure, the orthopaedic external fixator for complex fractures, a hydrocephalus fluid valve for normal pressure hydrocephalus, and intra-ocular lens and manual small incision cataract surgery. LMIC innovations that have had tremendous potential global impact include mosquito net mesh for inguinal hernia repair, and a flutter valve for intercostal drainage of pneumothorax.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Surgery, Inguinal hernia, Hernia, Ophthalmology, Innovation, Chest tube


The number of robotic surgical procedures performed yearly is constantly rising, due to improved dexterity and visualization capabilities compared with conventional methods. We hypothesized that outcomes after robotic-assisted inguinal hernia repair would not be significantly different from outcomes after laparoscopic or open repair.

Concepts: Surgery, Inguinal hernia, Hernia, Hernias, Robotics, Robot


The pressure to contain health expenditures is unprecedented. In England a flattening of the health budget but increasing demand led the National Health Service (NHS) to seek reductions in health expenditures of 17 percent over four years. The spending cuts were to be achieved through improvements in service quality and efficiency, including reducing the use of ineffective, overused, or inappropriate procedures. However, the NHS left it to the local commissioning (or funding) organizations, known as primary care trusts, to determine what steps to take to reduce spending. To assess whether the initiative had an impact, we examined six low-value procedures: spinal surgery for lower back pain, myringotomy to relieve eardrum pressure, inguinal hernia repair, cataract removal, primary hip replacement, and hysterectomy for heavy menstrual bleeding. We found significant reductions in three of the six procedures-cataract removal, hysterectomy, and myringotomy-in the program’s first year, compared to prior years' trends. However, changes in the rates of all examined procedures varied widely across commissioning organizations. Our findings highlight some of the challenges of making major budget cuts in health care. Reducing ineffective spending remains a significant opportunity for the US health care system, and the English experience may hold valuable lessons.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Medicine, Healthcare, Surgery, Inguinal hernia, Hernia, National Health Service


A better understanding of the analgesia needs of patients who undergo common operative procedures is necessary as we address the growing opioid public health crisis in the United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate patient experience with our opioid prescribing practice after elective inguinal hernia repairs.

Concepts: Inguinal hernia, Opioid, Morphine, Analgesic, Buprenorphine, Hydrocodone


Amyand’s hernia is an inguinal hernia containing the caecal appendix. It is usually an intraoperative finding, although it can be diagnosed preoperatively with radiologic examinations, which would show a tubular structure inside the inguinal canal.

Concepts: Inguinal hernia, Hernias


Hernia repairs are the most common elective abdominal wall procedures performed by general surgeons. The use of a mesh has become the standard for hernia repair surgery. Herein, we discuss a management strategy for chronic mesh infections following open inguinal hernia repair with onlay prosthetic mesh.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Inguinal hernia, Hernia, Antiseptic, General surgery, Hernias


In the new international guidelines only the mesh-based Lichtenstein, TEP and TAPP techniques are recommended. This present analysis of data from the Herniamed Registry compares the outcome for Shouldice versus Lichtenstein, TEP and TAPP.

Concepts: Inguinal hernia, Hernia, Hernias, Shouldice Hernia Centre