SciCombinator

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Concept: Inferior epigastric artery

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Pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap was developed by Hartrampf in 1982 for breast reconstruction. Since deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap was popularized, it has become the criterion standard for abdominally based breast reconstruction owing to its low donor site morbidity, excellent cosmetic outcomes, and high success rates. The purpose of this review is to determine if a unilateral pedicle TRAM flap has become obsolete to DIEP flap.

Concepts: Breast, Inferior epigastric artery, The Criterion Collection, Rectus abdominis muscle, The Criterion, DIEP flap, TRAM flap, Breast reconstruction

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The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is a mainstay of autologous breast reconstruction. The da Vinci robot has recently been adapted for an increasing number of reconstructive surgeries. The literature has yet to describe its use for the intra-abdominal harvest of the deep inferior epigastric vessels (DIEV) during DIEP flap breast reconstruction. We show the use of the da Vinci robotic surgical system for the intra-abdominal dissection of DIEV during delayed breast reconstruction with a DIEP flap in a 51-year-old female who had undergone a right modified radical mastectomy. After dissecting the flap from the anterior abdominal wall leaving only the targeted perforating vessels intact, a 1.5 cm fascial incision was made adjacent to the perforator and the vessels were dissected to below the level of the fascia. The intra-abdominal robotic-assisted dissection of the DIEV up to the perforator was then completed. The DIEV were divided at their origin using the robot and the flap removed from the abdomen for subsequent reconstruction. This technique enabled improved precision of flap harvest while also decreasing the donor-site morbidity by minimizing the incision length of the anterior rectus sheath. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and, at 9-month follow-up, exhibited no evidence of flap or donor-site complications, specifically hernia or bulge. This novel approach for the harvest of a DIEP flap introduces an alternative technique to the conventional DIEP flap procedure in the appropriate patient population. Risks inherent to this technique as well as additional costs must be considered.

Concepts: Robotic surgery, Radical mastectomy, Abdomen, Human abdomen, Mastectomy, Breast reconstruction, Surgery, Inferior epigastric artery

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Autologous breast reconstruction can be challenging in mastectomy patients who are not eligible for a deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap reconstruction. Depending on body habitus, alternative donor sites for free flap transfer can be found on the back, the thighs, and in the gluteal area. These alternative flaps can demand a higher level of expertise, which should be mastered by the modern day reconstructive microsurgeon. The flap choice should be tailored individually to each patient and should not be limited by the difficulty of the surgery.

Concepts: Physician, Hospital, Breast reconstruction, Breast, Inferior epigastric artery, Flap, Plastic surgery

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Reconstruction of thigh defects is usually straightforward, but in cases of poor soft tissue quality, free flap reconstruction is not possible due to the absence of recipient vessels. The turbocharge technique may increase the viable, vascularized area of a flap. In this report we present a case of the use of a turbocharged bilateral pedicled DIEP flap for reconstruction of thigh defect without recipient vessels. A 29-year-old woman who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radiation therapy for a leiomyosarcoma on the left thigh. Six weeks later, complete tumor excision and a femoropopliteal bypass with contralateral saphenous vein was performed. In the following days the wound had dehiscence, infection, necrosis of the surrounding muscles and exposure of femoropopliteal bypass. No recipient vessels were available for free flap and critical limb ischemia due to bypass thrombosis was detected. The reconstruction of a large thigh defect (30 × 12 cm) and the coverage of a femoropopliteal bypass with a turbocharged bilateral pedicled DIEP flap was performed. A flap including the entire infraumbilical tissue was designed and the anastomosis of the proximal stump of the right inferior epigastric vessels with the distal ends of the inferior left epigastric vessels was performed to increase the viable area. The flap survived without any complications during the postoperative period. At 12-month follow up, coverage was stable with no tumor recurrence. Our result suggests that a turbocharged bilateral pedicled DIEP flap may be an option for reconstructing large tissue defects when no recipient vessels are available for free flap.

Concepts: Turbocharger, Blood vessel, Cancer, Reconstruction, Ischemia, Surgery, Inferior epigastric artery, Reconstruction era of the United States

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BACKGROUND Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) greater than 5 cm in diameter is called giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC), or super giant basal cell carcinoma if it has a diameter larger than 20 cm. Giant BCC only accounts for 0.5% of BCCs and super giant BCC is exceedingly rare. On account of their rarity, there are no established guidelines for GBCC treatment. CASE REPORT We describe a peculiar case of an 82-year-old woman with a GBCC carcinoma of the lower abdominal wall. The tumor was surgically removed with ipsilateral inguinal lymph nodes and the abdominal wall was reconstructed immediately with a pedicled deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap. CONCLUSIONS Treatment of giant basal cell carcinoma is often difficult, especially in elderly patients with poor general health and multiple pathologies. The pedicled DIEP flap is rotated to cover the loss of substance without tension, and it is easy to harvest and transfer. This flap allowed a good result without local or systemic complication. We present this report as a reminder of the occasional occurrence of extremely aggressive BCCs. We believe that, especially for rare tumors like these, it is very useful for the entire scientific community to publish these cases and the therapeutic strategies used to treat them.

Concepts: Abdomen, Anatomical terms of location, Squamous cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma, Inferior epigastric artery, Cancer

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The transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap is an important option for breast reconstruction. Several studies have recently evaluated whether a greater number of complications result from the use of pedicled TRAM (pTRAM) flaps versus either free TRAM (fTRAM) flaps or deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps. To clarify the evidence regarding this issue, we performed an objective meta-analysis of published studies.

Concepts: Inferior epigastric artery

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An extensive 35 × 20 cm sized full-thickness abdominal wall defect was created after resection of aggressive abdominal fibromatosis in a 19-year-old male patient. Immediate reconstruction was not possible due to prolonged operation time and resulting severe bowel edema. A silicone sheet with NPWT was applied over the exposed viscera. After 1 week, silicone sheet was substituted with a composite mesh. Then, abdominal wall reconstruction with bilateral free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps (30 × 12 cm and 25 × 12 cm sized) was performed. Since there was only a single reliable recipient vessel available, we linked 2 ALT free flaps sequentially in a flow-through fashion to the left inferior epigastric artery and vein. Two donor sites were closed primarily. The flap fully survived and the defect was covered successfully without any complication for 11 months of follow up. Multiple flaps may be needed for large full-thickness abdominal wall defect coverage. Linked fasciocutaneous free flaps could be a solution with a less donor site morbidity even in the case of limited available recipient vessels. The purpose of this study is to introduce our experience of extensive full-thickness abdominal wall reconstruction using only ipsilateral deep inferior epigastric vessels.

Concepts: Blood vessel, Abdomen, Anatomical terms of location, Inferior epigastric artery

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Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the United States. Breast reconstruction surgery is a commonly used therapy for patients with breast cancer. The technique for the deep inferior epigastric perforator flap uses a preserved rectus muscle, which decreases donor site morbidity. Accurate identification and measurement of the perforator branches of the deep inferior epigastric artery is pivotal during pre-operative planning so that the surgeon can prioritize the best vessel to use and ultimately improve clinical outcome. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

Concepts: Breast implant, Medicine, The Canon of Medicine, Inferior epigastric artery, Surgery, Plastic surgery, Breast, Cancer

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When foot reconstruction is performed in the pretibial area, the ankle, or the dorsum of the foot, the need for a reliable flap remains a challenge. We found that the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) free flap can be used as an alternative tool for this purpose, as it helps to solve the problems associated with other flaps. We describe 2 cases in which we reconstructed the foot using an SIEA free flap, which was pliable enough to fit the contours of the area. Postoperatively, the flaps were intact and showed excellent aesthetic results. Thus, the SIEA free flap can be an alternative tool for patients with a low body mass index who undergo reconstructive surgery involving the pretibial area, ankle, knee, or dorsum of the foot, all of which require a soft and flexible flap.

Concepts: Mass, Body mass index, Inferior epigastric artery, Foot, Reconstructive surgery