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Concept: Inferior epigastric artery


Perforator selection is critical to deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvest. Commitment to a single perforator has the potential benefit of a simpler dissection, but may increase fat necrosis or perfusion-related complications compared with multiple perforator harvest.

Concepts: Inferior epigastric artery, Algorithm, Breast reconstruction


Umbilical reconstruction is an important component of deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction. This study evaluated the aesthetics of three different umbilical reconstruction techniques during DIEP flap breast reconstruction.

Concepts: Inferior epigastric artery, Plastic surgery, Breast reconstruction


Recent advances in 3-dimensional (3D) surface imaging technologies allow for digital quantification of complex breast tissue. We performed 11 unilateral breast reconstructions with deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps (5 immediate, 6 delayed) using 3D surface imaging for easier surgery planning and 3D-printed molds for shaping the breast neoparenchyma. A single- or double-pedicle flap was preoperatively planned according to the estimated tissue volume required and estimated total flap volume. The DIEP flap was then intraoperatively shaped with a 3D-printed mold that was based on a horizontally inverted shape of the contralateral breast. Cosmetic outcomes were assessed as satisfactory, as confirmed by the postoperative 3D measurements of bilateral breasts. We believe that DIEP flap reconstruction assisted with 3D surface imaging and a 3D-printed mold is a simple and quick method for rebuilding a symmetric breast.

Concepts: Inferior epigastric artery, Plastic surgery, Breast reduction, Breast, Breast reconstruction


We report a rare case of haemorrhage from the inferior epigastric artery, which was injured after acupuncture. The haemorrhage was successfully controlled by transcatheter arterial embolisation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the use of transcatheter arterial embolisation for inferior epigastric artery haemorrhage following acupuncture.

Concepts: Greatest hits albums, Blood, Inferior epigastric artery


The morphological result of nipple-areola complex (NAC) reconstruction may be disappointing for patients who undergo skin-sparing mastectomies and immediate breast reconstruction, followed by secondary reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex.The aim of this study was to analyze patient satisfaction after nipple-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction with a deep inferior epigastric perforator flap.

Concepts: Complex, Inferior epigastric artery, Patient, Breast cancer, Radical mastectomy, Cancer, Mastectomy, Breast


Venous congestion results in tissue damage and remains the most common reason for failure of transfer of microvascular free flaps if it is not recognised early. The purpose of this study was to measure the critical duration of venous congestion and the resultant survival of flaps according to the duration of venous stasis. A standard epigastric flap was raised and repositioned in 35 rats, seven of which acted as controls. The superficial inferior epigastric vein was fully occluded for four, five, six, or seven hours in the rest (n=7 each group). Subsequently, the rats were monitored for one week, and the resultant necrotic areas were photographed. After five, six, and seven hours of venous stasis, the incidence and area of necrosis were significantly increased (p=0.04 in each) above that of the control. The degree of necrosis after seven hours of venous stasis was significantly greater than that after four or five hours (p=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The duration of venous congestion is therefore a potential risk for the survival of free flaps, as it results in operative complications and may jeopardise the whole procedure. After a critical period of venous stasis we reach a point of no return, and any attempt to salvage the compromised flap will be in vain. Based on these results, we think that monitoring by an experienced surgeon at intervals of no longer than three hours is essential for the successful salvage of venous congestion in microvascular free flaps.

Concepts: Blood, Blood vessel, Inferior epigastric artery


Abdominal scars are no longer a contra-indication for abdominal perforator flap harvesting. Few research data exists about the regeneration potential of the abdominal wall’s perforator system. Therefore, previous abdominoplasty with umbilical transposition is an absolute contra-indication for a DIEaP-flap (deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap). A 50-year-old patient required a breast reconstruction of the right breast, 10¬†years after an abdominoplasty with undermining of the superior abdomen and umbilical transposition. The patient was scheduled for a free lumbar artery perforator (LaP) flap. The preoperative computed tomography-angiography mapping showed nice lumbar perforators and to our surprise a good-sized DIEa perforator in the peri-umbilical region. The DIEa perforator on the right hemi-abdomen, consisting of two veins and one artery, was pulsatile and found suitable in size. A classical flap harvest and transfer was further performed. This case report is the first in which a dominant perforator is found in the area of undermining after a full abdominoplasty with umbilical repositioning. Further investigations regarding the nature and timing of re-permeation or regeneration of perforators after abdominoplasty are to be done. Nevertheless, we are convinced that with appropriate perforator mapping and a suitable plan B, previous abdominoplasty is no longer an absolute but a relative contra-indication for performing DIEaP-flap.

Concepts: Human abdomen, Vein, Anatomical terms of location, Abdomen, Arteries of the abdomen, Breast, Inferior epigastric artery, Plastic surgery


Abdominal seroma formation after deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction is a common donor-site complication. Additional dissection of one or both of the superficial inferior epigastric veins (SIEVs) in DIEP flap breast reconstruction allows an additional anastomosis for venous superdrainage if venous congestion occurs. However, generally, SIEV dissection involves greater invasiveness into the inguinal region, which can traumatize lymphatic tissue and lead to lymph accumulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of SIEV dissection on the incidence of postoperative abdominal seroma.

Concepts: Lymphatic system, Inferior epigastric artery, Vein, Cardiovascular system, Blood


As more breast cancer patients opt for immediate breast reconstruction, the incidence of complications should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to analyze the recipient-site complications and flap re-explorations of immediate compared to delayed deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstructions.

Concepts: Breast cancer, Inferior epigastric artery


Pediatric kidney donors remain underutilized due to the high risk of postoperative thrombosis. To address this problem, we developed a novel en bloc kidney transplantation technique using donor thoracic aorta and the distal abdominal aorta as inflow and outflow tracts, respectively. Briefly, 8 kidneys from deceased infant donors under 5 months old and with low body weight (1.9-4.9 kg) were transplanted en bloc into 4 pediatric and 4 adult patients. The donor’s common iliac artery or external iliac artery was anastomosed to the recipient’s distal external iliac artery or inferior epigastric artery, respectively, as an outflow tract. Recipients received basiliximab or antithymocyte globulin as induction therapy followed by tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone but without prophylactic anticoagulation. Delayed graft function was observed in 1 patient but was reversed at 90 days post-transplant. Two patients had urine leakage, which was cured by conservative treatment. Two recipients developed lung infections that eventually cleared. No patients experienced post-transplant vascular thrombosis. After 1-1.5 years of follow up, all patients are well and have normal serum creatinine levels. In conclusion, this novel en bloc kidney transplantation technique using a modified arterial inflow and outflow tract can prevent vascular thrombosis and provide adequate graft function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Creatinine, Ureter, Inferior epigastric artery, Internal iliac artery, Abdominal aorta, Common iliac artery, Arteries of the abdomen, External iliac artery