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Concept: Iliohypogastric nerve


[Purpose] It has been reported that exercises focusing upon the transversus abdominis (TrA) ameliorate low back pain (LBP). We investigated whether expiratory muscle training (EMT) can promote activity of the TrA to the same degree as the abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) in elderly individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one elderly subjects (9 males, 12 females; mean age, 84.9 ± 6.6 years) without LBP symptoms were included. Using ultrasound imaging we measured changes in thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles, TrA, internal oblique muscle (IO), and external oblique muscle (EO) during ADIM and EMT. The load in EMT was set to 15% of maximal expiratory pressure. [Results] TrA showed a significant increase in muscle thickness during ADIM and EMT compared with at rest. A significant increase in muscle thickness was noted for EMT in comparison with ADIM. No significant differences were found for IO and EO. [Conclusion] In elderly people, EMT may be an effective alternative to ADIM for promoting activity of the TrA and can be used as an exercise to maintain TrA function.

Concepts: Physical exercise, Transversus abdominis muscle, Abdomen, Iliac crest, Abdominal external oblique muscle, Muscles of the torso, Iliohypogastric nerve, Abdominal internal oblique muscle


A subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) phenol injection was performed on a patient with refractory cancer pain due a metastatic involvement of the abdominal wall. A diagnostic block with local anesthetic was performed under ultrasound guidance (USG), resulting in a decrease of 80% and 100% in dynamic and static visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, respectively, for 20 hours. A phenol injection was then performed under USG. The patient reported 70% and 100% reduction in the dynamic and static VAS for pain and had a 50% decrease in the opioid requirement that was maintained for 2 months. TAP blocks offer an interesting tool for either diagnosis or therapeutic purpose in chronic pain management. USG provides an optimal approach to soft-tissue lesions where fluoroscopy techniques are not useful.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Anesthesia, Transversus abdominis muscle, Pain, Chronic pain, Ketamine, Local anesthetic, Iliohypogastric nerve


We performed bilateral transmuscular quadratus lumborum blocks in six cadavers using iodinated contrast and methylene blue. Computed tomography imaging was performed in four cadavers and anatomical dissection was completed in five. This demonstrated spread to the lumbar paravertebral space in 63% of specimens, laterally to the transversus abdominis muscle in 50% and caudally to the anterior superior iliac spine in 63% of specimens. There was no radiographic evidence of spread to the thoracic paravertebral space. Anatomical dissection revealed dye staining of the upper branches of the lumbar plexus and the psoas major muscle in 70% of specimens. Further clinical studies are required to confirm if the quadratus lumborum block might be a suitable alternative to lumbar plexus block.

Concepts: Biology, Transversus abdominis muscle, Anatomy, Iliac crest, Lumbar plexus, Dissection, Iliohypogastric nerve, Psoas major muscle


We compared the effect of subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with liposomal bupivacaine to TAP block with non-liposomal bupivacaine on postoperative maximal pain scores in patients undergoing donor nephrectomy. Sixty patients were prospectively randomly assigned to receive ultrasound-guided bilateral TAPs with either 1.3% liposomal bupivacaine and normal saline or 0.25% non-liposomal bupivacaine with adrenaline. There was a significant decrease in maximal pain scores in the liposomal bupivacaine TAP group when compared with the non-liposomal bupivacaine group median (IQR [range]), 24-48 h after injection, 5 (3.0-5.2 [0-10]) vs. 6 (4.5-7.0 [1–9]) p = 0.009; 48-72 h after injection, 3 (2.0-5.0 [0-8]) vs. 5 (3.0-7.0 [0-10]) p = 0.02; and in opioid use 48-72 h after injection, mean (SD) μg equivalents of fentanyl 105 (97) vs. 182 (162) p = 0.03. Liposomal bupivacaine via subcostal TAP infiltration provided superior analgesia up to 72 h after injection when compared with non-liposomal bupivacaine.

Concepts: Median, Transversus abdominis muscle, Opioid, Pain, Morphine, Heroin, Pain management, Iliohypogastric nerve


The purpose of this study was to describe ultrasound (US) changes in muscle thickness produced during automatic activation of the transversus abdominis (TrAb), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA), as well as the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the lumbar multifidus (LM), after 1 year of Pilates practice.

Concepts: Evaluation methods, Transversus abdominis muscle, Abdomen, Iliac crest, Abdominal external oblique muscle, Muscles of the torso, Iliohypogastric nerve, Crunch


Conventional perioperative analgesic modalities (e.g. opioids, epidural analgesia) have their own drawbacks, which limit their clinical application. This study investigated the opioid-sparing effectsof the oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane (OSTAP) blockade with ropivacaine for the patients undergoing open liver resection with a Mercedes incision.

Concepts: Transversus abdominis muscle, Opioid, Morphine, Analgesic, Epidural, Hydrocodone, Ropivacaine, Iliohypogastric nerve


We report on an endoscopic triple neurectomy in a female patient with vulvar carcinoma metastasized to the left groin with refractory neuropathic inguinodynia. Using a retroperitoneoscopic approach we resected the ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, and genitofemoral nerves. The inguinodynia improved significantly; especially the reduced ability to walk was enhanced considerably. Endoscopic triple neurectomy could be a useful therapeutic option in refractory inguinal pain caused by local tumor manifestation.

Concepts: Cancer, Inguinal hernia, Pain, Peripheral neuropathy, Lumbar plexus, Vulvar cancer, Iliohypogastric nerve, Ilioinguinal nerve


The analgesic effect and duration of a transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block remain controversial. Transversus abdominis plane blocks are effective for somatic/incisional pain but do not provide analgesia for visceral pain from intra-abdominal procedures. The purpose of this study was to assess the area and extent of cutaneous sensory blockade and the regression of dermatomal anesthesia after bilateral oblique subcostal TAP block.

Concepts: Transversus abdominis muscle, Opioid, Pain, Iliohypogastric nerve


After laparoscopic cholecystectomy, patients have moderate pain in the early postoperative period. Some studies shown beneficial effects of subcostal transversus abdominis plane block on reducing this pain. Our goal was to investigate influence of subcostal transversus abdominis plane block on postoperative pain scores and opioid consumption.

Concepts: Transversus abdominis muscle, Opioid, Pain, Laparoscopic surgery, Cholecystectomy, Iliohypogastric nerve, Transversus abdominis


Abdominal muscles are one of the important elements to support the lumbar spine. Evaluation of muscle thickness using ultrasonography (US) is considered to be a source of information from muscles characteristics. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate normal reference data of abdominal muscles thickness and subcutaneous fat in adolescents using US. A random sample of 160 healthy adolescents (80 boys and 80 girls) at the age range of 15-18 years was recruited. Three abdominal muscles including Transversus Abdominis (TA), Internal Oblique (IO), External Oblique (EO) and subcutaneous fat (SF) were bilaterally measured using US. The range of normal values for TA muscle thickness was between 2.31 and 2.57 mm, for IO muscle thickness was between 4.02 and 5.15 mm and for EO muscle thickness was between 2.81 and 3.17 mm. The normal patterns of abdominal muscles were found as IO > EO > TA at both sides. Boys were taller, heavier with greater body mass index (BMI) and had larger abdominal muscles thickness than girls. A weak negative correlation was found between age and muscles size [r = (-0.06) - (-0.23), p < .05], but a significant positive correlation was found between BMI and muscle size (r = 0.21-0.68, p < .05). It seems that abdominal muscles thickness in adolescents followed the same pattern of muscle size in adults. BMI appeared to be the best predictor of muscle thickness. However, further studies are recommended to support the findings of the present study.

Concepts: Muscle, Body mass index, Transversus abdominis muscle, Abdomen, Iliac crest, Abdominal external oblique muscle, Muscles of the torso, Iliohypogastric nerve