Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Ice hockey


Improving hydration is a strategy commonly used by clinicians to prevent overeating with the goal of promoting a healthy weight among patients. The relationship between weight status and hydration, however, is unclear. Our objective was to assess the relationship between inadequate hydration and BMI and inadequate hydration and obesity among adults in the United States.

Concepts: United States, United Kingdom, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, American football, Ice hockey, Promoting adversaries


The goal of this research was to identify the fraction of deaths attributable to diabetes in the United States.

Concepts: United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, American football, Humid subtropical climate, Ice hockey


Athletes participating in contact sports such as ice hockey are exposed to a high risk of suffering a concussion. We determined whether recent rule changes regulating contact to the head introduced in 2010-11 and 2011-12 have been effective in reducing the incidence of concussion in the National Hockey League (NHL). A league with a longstanding ban on hits contacting the head, the Ontario Hockey League (OHL), was also studied. A retrospective study of NHL and OHL games for the 2009-10 to 2011-12 seasons was performed using official game records and team injury reports in addition to other media sources. Concussion incidence over the 3 seasons analyzed was 5.23 per 100 NHL regular season games and 5.05 per 100 OHL regular season games (IRR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01, 1.50). When injuries described as concussion-like or suspicious of concussion were included, incidences rose to 8.8 and 7.1 per 100 games respectively (IRR 1.23; 95% CI 0.81, 1.32). The number of NHL concussions or suspected concussions was lower in 2009-10 than in 2010-11 (IRR 0.61; 95% CI 0.45, 0.83), but did not increase from 2010-11 to 2011-12 (IRR 1.05; 95% CI 0.80, 1.38). 64.2% of NHL concussions were caused by bodychecking, and only 28.4% of concussions and 36.8% of suspected concussions were caused by illegal incidents. We conclude that rules regulating bodychecking to the head did not reduce the number of players suffering concussions during NHL regular season play and that further changes or stricter enforcement of existing rules may be required to minimize the risk of players suffering these injuries.

Concepts: Ottawa, Concussion, Ice hockey, National Hockey League, Ice hockey at the Olympic Games, Stanley Cup, Wayne Gretzky, Ontario Hockey League


Relative age effects (RAEs) occur when those who are relatively older for their age group are more likely to succeed. RAEs occur reliably in some educational and athletic contexts, yet the causal mechanisms remain unclear. Here we provide the first direct test of one mechanism, selection bias, which can be defined as evaluators granting fewer opportunities to relatively younger individuals than is warranted by their latent ability. Because RAEs are well-established in hockey, we analyzed National Hockey League (NHL) drafts from 1980 to 2006. Compared to those born in the first quarter (i.e., January-March), those born in the third and fourth quarters were drafted more than 40 slots later than their productivity warranted, and they were roughly twice as likely to reach career benchmarks, such as 400 games played or 200 points scored. This selection bias in drafting did not decrease over time, apparently continues to occur, and reduces the playing opportunities of relatively younger players. This bias is remarkable because it is exhibited by professional decision makers evaluating adults in a context where RAEs have been widely publicized. Thus, selection bias based on relative age may be pervasive.

Concepts: Relative, Conscription in the United States, Ice hockey, National Hockey League, Quarters, Draft, Drafting, Drafted


Nightingale, SC, Miller, S, and Turner, A. The usefulness and reliability of fitness testing protocols for ice hockey players: A literature review. J Strength Cond Res 27(6): 1742-1748, 2013-Ice hockey, like most sports, uses fitness testing to assess athletes. This study reviews the current commonly used fitness testing protocols for ice hockey players, discussing their predictive values and reliability. It also discusses a range of less commonly used measures and limitations in current testing protocols. The article concludes with a proposed testing program suitable for ice hockey players.

Concepts: Scientific method, United States, Psychometrics, The Current, Book review, Ice hockey, Bodybuilding, Physical strength


SYNOPSIS: Ice hockey goaltenders are a specialized population of athletes because of the unique physical demand that the position, especially those who employ the butterfly technique, places on their lower extremities, specifically at the hip. It is no surprise that hip injuries are a common occurrence among goalies. A review of the biomechanical literature has demonstrated that stressing the hip in flexion and end-range internal rotation, the position goaltenders commonly use, puts the hip in an “at risk” position for injury and is likely a major contributing factor to overuse hip injuries. The stress on a goaltender’s hip is further intensified by the presence of bony deformities, such as cam or pincer type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), which can lead to chondrolabral junction and articular cartilage injuries. There have been few published reports of goaltenders functional outcomes following FAI surgery and to our knowledge no studies have yet identified the specific challenges presented in the rehabilitation of goaltenders post FAI surgery. Here we present a 6-phase return to skating program as part of the rehabilitation protocol that was developed to aid hockey goaltenders recovering from surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapy, level 5. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. Epub 12 February 2013. doi:10.2519/jospt.2013.4430.

Concepts: Ice, Knee, Ice hockey, Articular cartilage repair, Kingston, Ontario, Hockey, Goaltender, Ice hockey goaltenders


Wearable, wireless near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers were used to compare changes in on-ice short-track skating race simulations over 1,500 m with a 3-min cycle ergometry test at constant power output (400 W). The subjects were six male elite short-track speed skaters. Both protocols elicited a rapid desaturation (∆TSI%) in the muscle during early stages (initial 20 s); however, asymmetry between right and left legs was seen in ΔTSI% for the skating protocol, but not for cycling. Individual differences between skaters were present in both protocols. Notably, one individual who showed a relatively small TSI% change (-10.7%, group mean = -26.1%) showed a similarly small change during the cycling protocol (-5.8%, group mean = -14.3%). We conclude that NIRS-detected leg asymmetry is due to the specific demands of short-track speed skating. However, heterogeneity between individuals is not specific to the mode of exercise. Whether this is a result of genuine differences in physiology or a reflection of differences in the optical properties of the leg remains to be determined.

Concepts: Optics, Near infrared spectroscopy, Ice hockey, Ice rink, Olympic sports, Ice skating, Speed skating, Skating


Anaerobic power is a significant predictor of acceleration and top speed in team sport athletes. Historically, these findings have been applied to ice hockey, although recent research has brought their validity for this sport into question. As ice hockey emphasizes the ability to repeatedly produce power, single bout anaerobic power tests should be examined to determine their ability to predict on-ice performance. We tested whether conventional off-ice anaerobic power tests could predict on-ice acceleration, top speed, and repeated shift performance. Forty-five hockey players, aged 18-24, completed anthropometric, off-ice, and on-ice tests. Anthropometric and off-ice testing included height, weight, body composition, vertical jump, and Wingate tests. On-ice testing consisted of acceleration, top speed, and repeated shift fatigue tests. Vertical jump (VJ) (r = -0.42; r = -0.58), Wingate relative peak power (WRPP) (r = -0.32; r = -0.43), and relative mean power (WRMP) (r = -0.34; r = -0.48) were significantly correlated (p<0.05) to on-ice acceleration and top speed, respectively. Conversely, none of the off-ice tests correlated with on-ice repeated shift performance, as measured by first gate, second gate, or total course fatigue; VJ (r = 0.06; r = 0.13; r = 0.09), WRPP (r = 0.06; r = 0.14; r = 0.10), or WRMP (r = -0.10; r = -0.01; r = -0.01). While conventional off-ice anaerobic power tests predict single bout on-ice acceleration and top speed, they neither predict the repeated shift ability of the player, nor are good markers for performance in ice hockey.

Concepts: Velocity, Software testing, Ice hockey, Anaerobic exercise, Vertical jump, Hockey


In interceptive timing tasks, long quiet eye (QE) durations at the release point, along with early tracking on the object, allow performers to couple their actions to the kinematics of their opponent and regulate their movements based on emergent information from the object’s trajectory. We used a mobile eye tracker to record the QE of eight university-level ice hockey goaltenders of an equivalent skill level as they responded to shots that deflected off a board placed to their left or right, resulting in a trajectory with low predictability. QE behaviour was assessed using logistic regression and magnitude-based inference. We found that when QE onset occurred later in the shot (950 ± 580 ms, mean ± SD) there was an increase in the proportion of goals allowed (41% vs. 22%) compared to when QE onset occurred earlier. A shorter QE duration (1260 ± 630 ms) predicted a large increase in the proportion of goals scored (38% vs. 14%). More saves occurred when QE duration (2074 ± 47 ms) was longer. An earlier QE offset (2004 ± 66 ms) also resulted in a large increase in the number of goals allowed (37% vs. 11%) compared to a later offset (2132 ± 41 ms). Since an early, sustained QE duration contributed to a higher percentage of saves, it is important that coaches develop practice activities that challenge the goaltender’s ability to fixate the puck early, as well as sustain a long QE fixation on the puck until after it is released from the stick.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Eye tracking, Fixation, Ice hockey, Sustain, Hockey, Goaltender, Chapman Stick


This is a prospective, multi centered study conducted in 9 large urban areas in Russia, in order to determine the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age and the genotypes circulating during one rotavirus season.

Concepts: Urban area, Rotavirus, Republic, Canada, Ice hockey, Russia, Federation, Poland