Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Hypodermic needle


“Approximately 2 months ago, I had a patient where I accidently administered a wrong dose of fentanyl during a procedure. The patient developed severe hypotension, and the procedure had to be temporarily halted until we could get her blood pressure back up. My attending was close by. He responded quickly. Ultimately, no harm was done. "The reason I believe this happened is that during a procedure I’m sometimes required to administer fentanyl and must dilute it during the procedure. There are two dilutions, either to directly administer by syringe, or for use as an intravenous drip. We do this dilution . . .

Concepts: Patient, Intravenous therapy, Orthostatic hypotension, Hypotension, Hypodermic needle, Dilution, 2004 singles


Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

Concepts: Brain, Minimally invasive, Hypodermic needle, Electronic engineering


Peripheral intravascular cannula/catheter (PIVC) insertion is a common invasive procedure, but PIVC failure before the end of therapy is unacceptably high. As PIVC failure disrupts treatment and reinsertion can be distressing for the patient, prevention of PIVC failure is an important patient outcome. Consumer participation in PIVC care to prevent failure is an untapped resource. This study aimed to understand consumers' PIVC experience; establish aspects of PIVC insertion and care relevant to them; and to compare experiences of adult consumers to adult carers of a child. An international, web-based, cross-sectional survey was distributed via social media inviting adult consumers and adult carers of a child under 18 years who had experienced having a PIVC in the last five years (one survey each for adults and adult carers) to complete a 10-item survey. As such, sampling bias is a limitation and results should be carefully considered in light of this. There were 712 respondents from 25 countries, mainly female (87.1%) and adults (80%). A little over 50% of adults described insertion as moderately painful or worse, with level of insertion difficulty (0-10 scale) identified as moderate (median 4, IQR 1, 7). Adult carers reported significantly more pain during insertion and insertion difficulty (both p < 0.001). Rates of first insertion attempt failure were higher in children compared with adults (89/139 [64%] vs 221/554 [40%]; p < 0.001), and 23% of children required ≥ 4 attempts, compared with 9% of adults (p < 0.0001). Three themes from open-ended question emerged: Significance of safe and consistent PIVC care; Importance of staff training and competence; and Value of communication. The PIVC experience can be painful, stressful and frustrating for consumers. Priorities for clinicians and policy makers should include use of pain relief as standard practice to reduce the pain associated with PIVC insertion and developing strategies to increase first PIVC insertion attempt success particularly for children and older consumers.

Concepts: Intravenous therapy, Pain, Cannula, Hypodermic needle


We report a unique case of diabetic ketoacidosis in which a relatively low potassium level on admission was associated with consequent life-threatening and refractory arrhythmia secondary to inappropriate use of intravenous insulin and bicarbonate therapy. The latter was reversed by rapid bolus potassium injection. Although we do not advocate this approach in every case, we emphasise that a bolus injection of potassium may be life saving in such cases. The lessons from this case have led to multidisciplinary meetings and modification of the institute’s diabetic ketoacidosis clinical pathway.

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Medical emergencies, Cardiac arrest, Hypodermic needle, Ketoacidosis, Diabetic ketoacidosis, Hypokalemia


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of device-assisted ultrasound-guided steroid injection for treating plantar fasciitis. DESIGN: An ultrasound-guided injection device designed with space for securing a transducer and syringe was used to guide steroid injection. Patients with unilateral plantar fasciitis were enrolled and randomly divided into device-assisted ultrasound-guided and palpation-guided groups. Pain intensity was measured using a visual analog scale and tenderness threshold. Ultrasound and pain intensity evaluations were performed before injection and at 3 wks and at 3 mos postinjection. Betamethasone (7 mg) and 1% lidocaine (0.5 ml) were injected into the inflamed plantar fascia. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients who received either device-assisted ultrasound-guided or palpation-guided injection had significantly lower visual analog scale scores (P < 0.001) and higher tenderness threshold (P < 0.01) postinjection. However, the device-assisted group had higher tenderness threshold (9.02 ± 1.38 vs. 7.18 ± 2.11 kg/cm; P = 0.007), lower visual analog scale score (1.88 ± 2.13 vs. 3.63 ± 2.60; P = 0.046), and lower hypoechogenicity incidence in the plantar fascia (3/16 vs. 9/16; P = 0.033) than the palpation-guided group did at 3 mos postinjection. The heel pad was significantly thin (P = 0.004) in the palpation-guided group postinjection. CONCLUSIONS: Device-assisted ultrasound-guided injection for treating plantar fasciitis results in better therapeutic outcomes than palpation-guided injection does.

Concepts: Inflammations, Visual analogue scale, 2006 albums, Hypodermic needle, Syringe, Plantar fasciitis, Plantar fascia, Heel


Treatment options for the Dupuytren contractures vary from percutaneous needle aponeurotomy, open fasciotomy or fasciectomy, dermofasciectomy, and more recently, injectable collagenase. Although utilization of injectable collagenase avoids a formal surgical procedure, not all patients are eligible and some patients do not feel comfortable with an enzyme injection or the associated risks, which may include hematoma, wound dehiscence, or tendon rupture. This study describes the technique and early results of partial fasciectomy through a mini-incision approach as an additional treatment option for Dupuytren contractures. We found that this procedure results in contracture correction with a low rate of complications and thus provides the surgeon with an alternative treatment option to offer patients.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Minimally invasive, Invasiveness of surgical procedures, Open surgery, Dupuytren's contracture, Hypodermic needle


Intramuscular epinephrine is the gold standard treatment for anaphylaxis. Intramuscular injection provides more rapid and higher plasma concentrations than subcutaneous routes. Given the increasing epidemic of obesity patients are at increased risk of subcutaneous delivery, we therefore assessed the depth of subcutaneous tissue in a population of patients with anaphlaxis. Patients already prescribed epinephrine autoinjectors (EAIs) for anaphylaxis were examined with ultrasound and measurements of skin-to-muscle depth (STMD) at anterolateral thigh and anterior thigh were performed. 28 patients (23 female, 5 male) with an age range of 18-75 took part in the study and in 68% the STMD was greater than EAI needle length (15.02mm) using the anterolateral thigh, the recommended administration site. The key predictors for increased STMD were female gender (p 0.0003) and a BMI > 30 (p 0.04). EAIs require longer needles to ensure intramuscular administration and ultrasound at point of prescription would aid needle length selection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Male, Gender, Epinephrine, Route of administration, All rights reserved, Anaphylaxis, Copyright, Hypodermic needle


The indications for fat grafting are increasing steadily. In microfat grafting, thin injection cannulas are used. The authors describe their experience of fat injection with even thinner injection needles up to 27 gauge. The fat used for this purpose is processed into “nanofat.” Clinical applications are described. Preliminary results of a study, set up to determine the cellular contents of nanofat, are presented.

Concepts: Research, Hypodermic needle


Intravitreal injection is widely used for easy control of drug levels in posterior segment of the eye by injecting the drug directly with hypodermic needles. Patients, however, often experience complications from intravitreal injection due to repeated injections, increased intraocular pressure, and infection. In addition, injected drug reflux after intravitreal injection makes it challenging to maintain predetermined drug dose due to the drug loss through backward effusions. Here, we described that the Tower Microneedle can reduce initial reflux and bleb formation due to its smaller outer diameter compared to a traditional hypodermic needle. Furthermore, we use phenylephrine hydrochloride for pupil expansion and demonstrated that Tower Microneedle induced similar pupil expansions using only half the drug volume, in the same period of time, compared to the 31 Gauge hypodermic needle. Consequently, Tower Microneedle achieves the same therapeutic effect in the vitreous body using fewer drugs than a traditional hypodermic needle due to the decreased backward drug effusion. Tower Microneedle described herein holds great promise for intravitreal injection with less reflux and lower drug dosage.

Concepts: Therapeutic effect, Pharmacology, Eye, Hypodermic needle, Injection, Syringe, Stubs Iron Wire Gauge, Needle gauge comparison chart


Abstract Background: Many diabetes patients who require insulin perform multiple subcutaneous injections every day that often cause pain, discomfort, and anxiety. We compared efficacy (glycemic control) and patient preference for two types of needle: a shorter straight needle (32 gauge×4 mm, straight wall; Nippon Becton Dickinson Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan; hereafter referred to as BD32S4) and a thinner microtapered needle (33-gauge tip and 28-gauge base×5 mm, double-tapered wall; Terumo Corp., Tokyo, Japan; hereafter referred to as TR33T5) in a single-center study. Patients and Methods: Eighty-four patients with diabetes were enrolled in a randomized, open-label crossover trial. The patients injected their usual insulin dosage with one type of needle for 4 weeks and then switched to the other type for the next 4 weeks. The serum glycated albumin level was measured before and after each 4-week period. Each patient assessed pain during injection on a 150-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Needle preference, perceptions of handling, and acceptance were assessed by the patients, who completed a questionnaire after using each type of needle for 4 weeks. Results: In total, 79 patients completed the study. There was no difference of glycemic control between the two needles. The mean VAS score was -14.5 mm (95% confidence interval, -20.9, -8.0 mm), indicating that the patients perceived less pain with the BD32S4 needle. In the overall evaluation, a significantly higher percentage of patients selected the BD32S4 as the better needle compared with the TR33T5 (60.3% vs. 19.2%; P<0.0001). Conclusions: The BD32S4 needle was more highly evaluated and was preferred by the patients with respect to pain during injection, usability, and visual impression, without having a negative impact on glycemic control. The overall preference of patients for the shorter needle in this study suggests that needle length may be one of the major contributing factors for patients' comfort in insulin injection, although the other relevant factors of needles still need to be considered.

Concepts: Insulin, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes, Insulin resistance, Albumin, Hypodermic needle, Subcutaneous injection, Becton Dickinson