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Concept: Hypnotic


Hip fractures in the older person lead to an increased risk of mortality, poorer quality of life and increased morbidity. Benzodiazepine (BNZ) use is associated with increased hip fracture rate, consequently Z-drugs are fast becoming the physician’s hypnotic prescription of choice yet data on their use is limited. We compared the risk of hip fracture associated with Z-drugs and BNZ medications, respectively, and examined if this risk varied with longer-term use.

Concepts: Hypnotic, Pharmacology, Benzodiazepine, Zolpidem, Osteoporosis, Barbiturate, Zaleplon, Bone fracture


During pregnancy, many women experience sleep problems and anxiety that require treatment. The long-term safety for the child of maternal benzodiazepine (BZD) and z-hypnotic use during pregnancy remains controversial.

Concepts: Breastfeeding, Hypnotic, Alprazolam, Childbirth, Insomnia


To compare the effects of a single nocturnal dose of 3 honey products (eucalyptus honey, citrus honey, or labiatae honey) to placebo (silan date extract) on nocturnal cough and difficulty sleeping associated with childhood upper respiratory tract infections (URIs).

Concepts: Diurnality, Hypnotic, Circadian rhythm, Sleep disorder, Lower respiratory tract, Upper respiratory tract, Upper respiratory tract infection, Respiratory system


Information on sleep quality and insomnia symptomatology among elite athletes remains poorly systematised in the sports science and medicine literature. The extent to which performance in elite sport represents a risk for chronic insomnia is unknown.

Concepts: Insomnia, Sport, Art, Circadian rhythm, Sleep disorder, Sleep deprivation, Hypnotic, Medicine


An important function of sleep is the consolidation of memories, and features of sleep, such as rapid eye movement (REM) or sleep spindles, have been shown to correlate with improvements in discrete memory domains. Because of the methodological difficulties in modulating sleep, however, a causal link between specific sleep features and human memory consolidation is lacking. Here, we experimentally manipulated specific sleep features during a daytime nap via direct pharmacological intervention. Using zolpidem (Ambien), a short-acting GABAA agonist hypnotic, we show increased sleep spindle density and decreased REM sleep compared with placebo and sodium oxybate (Xyrem). Naps with increased spindles produced significantly better verbal memory and significantly worse perceptual learning but did not affect motor learning. The experimental spindles were similar to control spindles in amplitude and frequency, suggesting that the experimental intervention enhanced normal sleep processes. Furthermore, using statistical methods, we demonstrate for the first time a critical role of spindles in human hippocampal memory performance. The gains in memory consolidation exceed sleep-alone or control conditions and demonstrate the potential for targeted, exceptional memory enhancement in healthy adults with pharmacologically modified sleep.

Concepts: Episodic memory, Hypnotic, Psychology, Pharmacology, Rapid eye movement sleep, Hippocampus, Memory, Sleep


Aims: To (a) describe the prevalence, trend, and amount of hypnotic drug use, (b) determine the prevalence of chronic diseases among hypnotic drug users, and © determine levels of recurrent hypnotic drug use (2007-2011), among 0-17 year old Norwegians. Methods: Data were obtained from the nationwide Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD) in the period 2004-2011. Results: Hypnotic drug use in 0-17 year olds increased during the period, from 8.9 to 12.3 per 1000, mainly owing to doubling of melatonin use. Hypnotic drug use peaked at 15 per 1000 among those aged 1-2 years. Melatonin use increased steadily from 6 to 12 years of age, most pronounced in males. Among females, hypnotic drug use increased threefold from 13 to17 years of age. Melatonin was dispensed in the highest annual amount of all hypnotic drugs; accounting up to a median of 360 defined daily doses in 9-13 year old boys. A total of 62% and 52% of all male and female hypnotic drug users were co-medicated with reimbursable drugs for chronic diseases. Levels of recurrent use (2007-2011) were 12% in boys and 8% in girls, of whom 76-77% were co-medicated with drugs reimbursed for chronic diseases. Conclusions: There is a trend of increasing use of hypnotic drugs among 0-17 year olds, mainly owing to increasing use of melatonin, used in high amounts. Still, melatonin is not recommended in Norway for use in this age group because of insufficient data on safety and efficacy. A threefold increase in hypnotic drugs among females from 13 to 17 years of age warrants attention.

Concepts: Hypnotic, Sex, Benzodiazepine, Drug addiction, Female, Male


STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate efficacy and safety of 3.5-mg zolpidem tartrate sublingual tablets (ZST) on latency to sleep onset after middle-of-the-night (MOTN) awakenings in patients with insomnia characterized by difficulty returning to sleep after MOTN awakenings. DESIGN: Multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group. SETTING: Outpatient. PATIENTS: There were 295 adults (median age 43 y; 68.1% female) with primary insomnia and difficulty returning to sleep after MOTN awakenings (three or more MOTN awakenings/wk during screening). INTERVENTIONS: After a 2-wk, single-blind placebo eligibility period, participants were randomized 1:1 to as-needed MOTN dosing with 3.5 mg ZST or placebo for 28 nights. An interactive voice response system determined if the study drug could be taken and recorded sleep/wake efficacy measures. RESULTS: ZST significantly (P < 0.0001) decreased latency to sleep onset over 4 wk (baseline 68.1 min; ZST 38.2 min) compared with placebo (baseline 69.4 min; placebo 56.4 min). Ratings of morning sleepiness/alertness significantly (P = 0.0041) favored the ZST group on nights medication was taken but not on other nights. Participants in the ZST group took the study drug on 62% of nights during the 4 wk; members of the placebo group took study medication on 64% of nights. Adverse events were generally mild and at the same rate (19.3% of participants) in both groups. There were no treatment-related serious adverse events (SAEs), and one adverse event-related study discontinuation from the placebo group. Dosing/week did not increase across the study. CONCLUSIONS: 3.5 mg ZST used as needed significantly reduced latency to return to sleep in comparison with placebo in these patients with insomnia. Sleep quality was improved, and morning sleepiness/alertness scores also improved. ZST was well tolerated. These data demonstrate the utility of a sleep-promoting agent when used as needed in the MOTN. CLINICAL TRIAL INFORMATION: CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT00466193: "A Study of Zolpidem Tartrate Tablet in Adult Patients with Insomnia" CITATION: Roth T; Krystal A; Steinberg FJ; Singh NN; Moline M. Novel sublingual low-dose zolpidem tablet reduces latency to sleep onset following spontaneous middle-of-the-night awakening in insomnia in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, outpatient study. SLEEP 2013;36(2):189-196.

Concepts: Insomnia, Zopiclone, Nonbenzodiazepine, Placebo, Benzodiazepine, Zolpidem, Hypnotic, Clinical trial


To test cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in patients who not only receive psychiatric treatment in a outpatient psychiatry clinic but also continue to experience chronic insomnia despite receiving pharmacological treatment for sleep. CBT-I included an optional module for discontinuing hypnotic medications.

Concepts: Generalized anxiety disorder, Hypnotic, Mental disorder, Sleep medicine, Clinical psychology, Zopiclone, Psychotherapy, Medicine


As a result of the demographic change, the proportions of elderly patients undergoing operations and anesthesia are increasingly important. The consumption of benzodiazepines evidently rises with increasing age. Associated with the increasing consumption in the elderly is the risk of cognitive impairment, delirium, falls and fractures. Also long-term benzodiazepine use in low-dose may induce perioperative withdrawal syndrome. The following article will present characteristics and complications accompanied by critical benzodiazepine use especially in the elderly patients.

Concepts: Hypnotic, Addiction, Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, Delirium tremens, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, Withdrawal, Physical dependence, Benzodiazepine


In contemporary hypnosis, language constitutes the hypnotist’s rudimentary instrument for developing and utilizing the hypnotic trance. In the current article, the author proposes a theoretical and clinical approach for using patient self-talk during hypnotic induction by discussing the influence of self-talk on consciousness regulation. The article includes some historical background on the use of language during hypnotic communication and demonstrates some clinical applications of patients self-talk in the process of hypnotic induction.

Concepts: Psychotherapy, The Current, Patient, Greek loanwords, Hypnotic, Hypnosis