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Concept: Hygiene hypothesis


For many years, pathogenetic concepts and the results of clinical trials supported the view that anti-IgE treatment is specifically effective in allergic asthma. However, there is now growing clinical and mechanistic evidence suggesting that treatment with the anti-IgE antibody omalizumab can be effective in patients with intrinsic asthma. Therefore, large and well-controlled clinical trials with anti-IgE are urgently warranted in patients with intrinsic asthma. In addition, there is a need to find new biomarkers which can identify patients with asthma who respond to anti-IgE treatment.

Concepts: Immune system, Clinical trial, Asthma, Immunology, Immunoglobulin E, Allergy, Atopy, Hygiene hypothesis


The hygiene hypothesis suggests that early-life exposure to microbial organisms reduces the risk of developing allergies. Thumb-sucking and nail-biting are common childhood habits that may increase microbial exposures. We tested the hypothesis that children who suck their thumbs or bite their nails have a lower risk of developing atopy, asthma, and hay fever in a population-based birth cohort followed to adulthood.

Concepts: Asthma, Hypersensitivity, Allergy, Atopy, Allergen, Microorganism, Hygiene hypothesis, Habits


Childhood exposure to a farm environment has been shown to protect against the development of inflammatory diseases such as allergy, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Asthma, Infection, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Inflammatory bowel disease, Hygiene hypothesis


The Hygiene Hypothesis (HH) attributes the dramatic increase in autoimmune and allergic diseases observed in recent decades in Western countries to the reduced exposure to diverse immunoregulatory infectious agents. This theory has since largely been supported by strong epidemiological and experimental evidence.

Concepts: Immune system, Epidemiology, Infectious disease, Hypothesis, Hygiene hypothesis


Asthma is a heterogeneous disease. The Czech Pneumology and Allergology Societies commissioned 10 experts to review the literature and create joint national guidelines for managing asthma, reflecting this heterogeneity. The aim was to develop an easy-to-use diagnostic strategy as a rational approach to the widening opportunities for the use of phenotype-targeted therapy. The guidelines were presented on websites for public comments by members of both the societies. The reviewers' comments contributed to creating the final version of the guidelines. The key hallmark of the diagnostic approach is the pragmatic concept, which assesses the presence of allergy and eosinophilia in each asthmatic patient. The guidelines define three clinically relevant asthma phenotypes: eosinophilic allergic asthma, eosinophilic non-allergic asthma and non-eosinophilic non-allergic asthma. The resulting multifunctional classification describing the severity, level of control and phenotype is the starting point for a comprehensive treatment strategy. The level of control is constantly confronted with the intensity of the common stepwise pharmacotherapy, and the concurrently included phenotyping is essential for phenotype-specific therapy. The concept of the asthma approach with assessing the presence of eosinophilia and allergy provides a way for more precise diagnosis, which is a prerequisite for using widening options of personalised therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Allergy, Atopy, Eczema, Hygiene hypothesis


Given the strong environmental influence on both epigenetic marks and allergic asthma in children, the epigenetic alterations in respiratory epithelia might provide insight into allergic asthma.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Hypersensitivity, Allergy, Atopy, Allergen, Mucus, Hygiene hypothesis


Immune diseases such as asthma, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes have shown a parallel increase in prevalence during recent decades in westernized countries. The rate of cesarean delivery has also increased in this period and has been associated with the development of some of these diseases.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Childbirth, Disease, Asthma, Inflammatory bowel disease, Caesarean section, Hygiene hypothesis


Stigma is associated with many negative health outcomes. Research has examined perceived and internalized stigma in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but less has been done to evaluate levels of enacted stigma associated with these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of enacted stigma toward IBS and IBD in the general population compared to an adult-onset asthma (AOA) control group.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Ulcerative colitis, Gastroenterology, Inflammatory bowel disease, Irritable bowel syndrome, Flatulence, Hygiene hypothesis


Many types of tree pollen trigger seasonal allergic illness, but their population-level impacts on allergy and asthma morbidity are not well established, likely due to the paucity of long records of daily pollen data that allow analysis of multi-day effects. Our objective in this study was therefore to determine the impacts of individual spring tree pollen types on over-the-counter allergy medication sales and asthma emergency department (ED) visits.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Allergy, Atopy, New York City, Pollen, New Jersey, Hygiene hypothesis


To systematically review the association between breastfeeding and childhood allergic disease.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Allergy, Atopy, Eczema, Hygiene hypothesis