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Concept: Hydrogen chloride


Both nitrate and pentachlorophenol (PCP) are familiar pollutants in aqueous environment. This research is focused on the simultaneous removal of nitrate and PCP from simulated contaminated groundwater using a laboratory-scale denitrification reactor packed with corncob as both carbon source and biofilm support. The reactor could be started up readily, and the removal efficiencies of nitrate and PCP reached up to approximately 98 % and 40-45 % when their initial concentrations were 50 mg N/L and 5 mg/L, respectively, after 15-day continuous operation at 10 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 25 °C. Approximately 91 % of PCP removal efficiency was achieved, with 2.47 mg/L of chloride ion release at 24 h of HRT. Eighty-two percent of chlorine in PCP removed was ionized. The productions of 3-chlorophenol and phenol and chloride ion release indicate that the reductive dechlorination reaction is a major degradation pathway of PCP under the experimental conditions.

Concepts: Concentration, Chemistry, Water pollution, Sodium chloride, Ion, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride


The pressure-temperature phase diagram of ice displays a perplexing variety of structurally distinct phases. In the century-long history of scientific research on ice, the proton-ordered ice phases numbered XIII through XV were discovered only recently. Despite considerable effort, none of the transitions leading from the low-temperature ordered ices VIII, IX, XI, XIII, XIV and XV to their high-temperature disordered counterparts were experimentally found to display the full Pauling entropy. Here we report calorimetric measurements on suitably high-pressure-treated, hydrogen chloride-doped ice XIV that demonstrate just this at the transition to ice XII. Dielectric spectroscopy on undoped and on variously doped ice XII crystals reveals that addition of hydrogen chloride, the agent triggering complete proton order in ice XIV, enhances the precursor dynamics strongest. These discoveries provide new insights into the puzzling observation that different dopants trigger the formation of different proton-ordered ice phases.

Concepts: Crystal, Hydrogen, Ice, Phase, Chlorine, Triple point, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


In this paper, we propose a simple method to embed transparent reactive materials in a microfluidic cell, and to observe in situ the dissolution of the material. As an example, we show how to obtain the dissolution rate of a calcite window of optical quality, dissolved in water and hydrochloric acid (HCl). These fluids circulate at controlled flowrates in a channel which is obtained by xurography: double sided tape is cut out with a cutter plotter and placed between the calcite window and a non-reactive support. While the calcite window reacts in contact with the acid, its topography is measured in situ every 10 s using an interference microscope, with a pixel resolution of 4.9 μm and a vertical resolution of 50 nm. In order to avoid inlet influence on the reaction, a thin layer of photoresist is added on the calcite surface at the inlet and outlet. This layer is also used as a non reactive reference surface.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Acid dissociation constant, Materials science, Chlorine, Glass, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid, Leblanc process


In order to form a modified solid recovered fuel (SRF) with low chlorine content, high calorific value and well combustion performance, low temperature microwave irradiation was applied to remove the chlorine of the organochloride waste mixture before they were mixed to form SRF. The optimizing conditions of final temperature, microwave absorbents and heating rate were also detected to obtain high dechlorination ratio and high ratio of hydrogen chloride (HCl) to volatiles. In the temperature range of 220-300°C, 280°C would be chose as the optimal low microwave modified temperature concerning at which the dechlorination ratio was high and ratio of HCl to volatiles was relatively high as well; The use of microwave absorbents of graphite and silicon carbide (SiC) had a pronounced effect on the dechlorination of organochloride waste mixture, and the dechlorination ratio was increased significantly which could be reached to 87%, almost 20% higher than absorbent absent sample; The heating rate should set be not too fast nor too slow, and there was no big difference between the heating rate of 13°C/min and 15°C/min; The content of Cl of modified SRF is dramatically decreased and reaches to a low level 0.328%. Hence, the modified SRF can be ascended from the third class to the second class according to the Finland chlorine Classes I-III. Moreover, the combustibility of modified SRF was substantial improved compared to the traditional SRF. The low heating value was almost 20.56MJ/kg which is close to the LHV of lignite coal and bituminous coal in China, and it increased by 60% over that of traditional SRF. Removing chlorine of organochloride waste mixture before they are mixed with other kinds of combustible waste to form a modified SRF which is expected to be an alternative fuel for combustion in the future.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Chlorine, Coal, Combustion, Hydrogen chloride, Bituminous coal, Hydrochloric acid, Lignite


Visible light photoredox catalysis enables the efficient synthesis of arenesulfonyl chlorides from anilines. The new protocol involves the convenient in situ preparations of arenediazonium salts (from anilines) and the reactive gases SO2 and HCl (from aqueous thionyl chloride). The photocatalytic chlorosulfonylation operates at mild conditions (room temp., acetonitrile/water) with low catalyst loading (0.5 mol% Ru(bpy)3Cl2). Various functional groups are being tolerated (e.g. halides, azide, nitro, CF3, SF5, esters, heteroarenes). Theoretical and experimental studies support a photoredox catalysis mechanism ( 0.027).

Concepts: Chemical reaction, Functional group, Hydrogen, Catalysis, Nitrogen, Functional groups, Hydrogen chloride, Chlorides


The radiotracer, [(18) F]-THK-5351 is a highly selective and high binding affinity PET imaging agent for aggregates of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein. Our report is a simplified one-pot, two-step radiosynthesis of [(18) F]-THK-5351. This report is broadly applicable for routine clinical production and multi-center trials on account of favorable half-life of flourine-18 and the use of a commercially available radiosynthesis module, the GE TRACERlab™ FXFN . First, the O-THP protected tosyl precursor underwent nucleophilic fluorinating reaction with potassium cryptand fluoride ([(18) F] fluoride (K[(18) F]/K222 )) in DMSO at 110 °C for 10 min followed by O-THP removal by using diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl) at same temperature. [(18) F]-THK-5351 was purified via semi-preparative HPLC and formulated by using 10% EtOH, USP in 0.9% sodium chloride for injection, USP and an uncorrected radiochemical yield of 21 ± 3.5%, with a specific activity of 153.11 ± 25.9 GBq/ µmol (4138 ± 700 mCi/µmol) at the end of synthesis (63 min; n = 3). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Sodium chloride, Sodium, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid, Chlorides


We successfully observed the equilibrium state of the chemical reactions for superheavy elements on a one-atom-at-a-time scale; we investigated the time dependence of the extraction behaviour of element 104, Rf. The distribution coefficient of Rf in 9 M HCl was found to be higher than those of its homologous elements, probably due to differences in the chloride complexation of Rf.

Concepts: Chemical reaction, Hydrogen, Chemistry, Temperature, Chemical substance, Chemical element, Nature, Hydrogen chloride


Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (ISP). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal ISP by ∼7s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5±4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption.

Concepts: Oxygen, Hydrogen, Chlorine, Lithium, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride, Rocket, Hydrochloric acid


Despite the structural, load-bearing role of cellulose in the plant kingdom, countless efforts have been devoted to degrading this recalcitrant polysaccharide, particularly in the context of biofuels and renewable nanomaterials. Herein, we show how the exposure of plant-based fibers to HCl vapor results in rapid degradation with simultaneous crystallization. Because of the unchanged sample texture and the lack of mass transfer out of the substrate in the gas/solid system, the changes in the crystallinity could be reliably monitored. Furthermore, we describe the preparation of cellulose nanocrystals in high yields and with minimal water consumption. The study serves as a starting point for the solid-state tuning of the supramolecular properties of morphologically heterogeneous biological materials.

Concepts: Water, Hydrogen, Starch, Cell wall, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


Ingestion of contaminated soil is one potential internal exposure pathway in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Doses from this pathway can be overestimated if the availability of radioactive nuclides in soils for the gastrointestinal tract is not considered. The concept of bioaccessibility has been adopted to evaluate this availability based on in vitro tests. This study evaluated the bioaccessibility of radioactive cesium from soils via the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) and the extractability of those via an extraction test with 1 mol/L of hydrochloric acid (HCl). The bioaccessibility obtained in the PBET was 5.3% ± 1%, and the extractability in the tests with HCl was 16% ± 3%. The bioaccessibility was strongly correlated with the extractability. This result indicates the possibility that the extractability in HCl can be used as a good predictor of the bioaccessibility with PBET. In addition, we assessed the doses to children from the ingestion of soil via hand-to-mouth activity based on our PBET results using a probabilistic approach considering the spatial distribution of radioactive cesium in Date City in Fukushima Prefecture and the interindividual differences in the surveyed amounts of soil ingestion in Japan. The results of this assessment indicate that even if children were to routinely ingest a large amount of soil with relatively high contamination, the radiation doses from this pathway are negligible compared with doses from external exposure owing to deposited radionuclides in Fukushima Prefecture.

Concepts: Chernobyl disaster, Digestive system, Chlorine, Nuclear power, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid, Fukushima Prefecture, Tōhoku region