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Concept: Hydrogen chloride

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Both nitrate and pentachlorophenol (PCP) are familiar pollutants in aqueous environment. This research is focused on the simultaneous removal of nitrate and PCP from simulated contaminated groundwater using a laboratory-scale denitrification reactor packed with corncob as both carbon source and biofilm support. The reactor could be started up readily, and the removal efficiencies of nitrate and PCP reached up to approximately 98 % and 40-45 % when their initial concentrations were 50 mg N/L and 5 mg/L, respectively, after 15-day continuous operation at 10 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 25 °C. Approximately 91 % of PCP removal efficiency was achieved, with 2.47 mg/L of chloride ion release at 24 h of HRT. Eighty-two percent of chlorine in PCP removed was ionized. The productions of 3-chlorophenol and phenol and chloride ion release indicate that the reductive dechlorination reaction is a major degradation pathway of PCP under the experimental conditions.

Concepts: Concentration, Chemistry, Water pollution, Sodium chloride, Ion, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride

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The pressure-temperature phase diagram of ice displays a perplexing variety of structurally distinct phases. In the century-long history of scientific research on ice, the proton-ordered ice phases numbered XIII through XV were discovered only recently. Despite considerable effort, none of the transitions leading from the low-temperature ordered ices VIII, IX, XI, XIII, XIV and XV to their high-temperature disordered counterparts were experimentally found to display the full Pauling entropy. Here we report calorimetric measurements on suitably high-pressure-treated, hydrogen chloride-doped ice XIV that demonstrate just this at the transition to ice XII. Dielectric spectroscopy on undoped and on variously doped ice XII crystals reveals that addition of hydrogen chloride, the agent triggering complete proton order in ice XIV, enhances the precursor dynamics strongest. These discoveries provide new insights into the puzzling observation that different dopants trigger the formation of different proton-ordered ice phases.

Concepts: Crystal, Hydrogen, Ice, Phase, Chlorine, Triple point, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid

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The efficiency of white lupine (Lupinus albus) to uptake and accumulate mercury from a soil polluted by mining activities was assessed in a pot experiment with chemically assisted phytoextraction. The mobilizing agents tested were ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Two doses of each amendment were used (0.5 and 1.0 g of amendment per kg of soil), and unamended pots were used as a control. Addition of HCl to the soil did not negatively affect plant biomass, while the use of EDTA led to a significant decrease in plant growth when compared to that found for non-treated pots, with plants visually showing symptoms of toxicity. The addition of hydrochloric acid increased root, shoot and total plant Hg uptake of white lupine by 3.7 times, 3.1 times and 3.5 times, respectively, in relation to non-amended plants. The greatest efficiency was obtained for the highest HCl dose. EDTA led to higher concentrations of total plant Hg than that found with the control, but, due to the aforementioned decrease in plant biomass, the Hg phytoextraction yield was not significantly increased. These results were attributed to the capability of both amendments to form stable Hg complexes. The concentration of Hg in the water of the soil pores after the phytoextraction experiment was very low for all treatments, showing that risks derived from metal leaching could be partially avoided by using doses and chemicals suitable to the concentration of metal in the soil and plant performance.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Chemistry, Soil, Chlorine, Lupin, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid, Leblanc process

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A new, simple, and fast method has been developed for the determination of multi-class antibiotic residues in honey (sulfonamides, tetracyclines, macrolides, lincosamides, and aminoglycosides). The separation and the determination are carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the sample preparation, various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were examined including the type of solvent, the pH, the efficiencies of cleavage of N-glycosidic linkages by hydrochloric acid, ultrasonic extraction and its duration compared to shaking, along with dispersive SPE clean-up. Experiments with fortified samples demonstrated that 10 min ultrasonic treatment with acidified methanol (HCl 2M) followed by dispersive SPE clean-up with 50 mg PSA gave an effective sample preparation method for several classes of antibiotics in honey. Anhydroerythromycin A, erythromycin A enol ether, and desmycosin were used as markers for the presence of erythromycin A and tylosin A in honey samples. The method was validated according to European Commission Decision (EC) No 2002/657. The recoveries of analytes ranged from 85 to 111%. Repeatability and intra-laboratory reproducibility were less than 20.6% and 26.8%, respectively. Decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) ranged from 6 to 9 µg kg(-1) and from 7 to 13 µg kg(-1), respectively, except for streptomycin and neomycin which showed slightly higher CCα at 25 µg kg(-1) and CCβ at 34 µg kg(-1). Finally, the method was applied to the honey test material 02270 through a FAPAS proficiency test (PT) for the determination of tetracyclines. PT results were obtained within a Z-score range of ±2, proving that the validated method is suitable to be used in routine analysis to ensure the quality of honey.

Concepts: Hydrogen, PH, Antibiotic, Chlorine, Erythromycin, Hydrogen chloride, Macrolide, Hydrochloric acid

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In this research morphological techniques were used to characterize dechlorination process of PVC when it is in the mixed waste plastics and the two important factors influencing this process, namely, the proportion of PVC in the mixed plastics and heating rate adopted in the pyrolysis process were investigated. During the pyrolysis process for the mixed plastics containing PVC, the morphologic characteristics describing PVC dechlorination behaviors were obtained with help of a high-speed infrared camera and image processing tools. At the same time emission of hydrogen chloride (HCl) was detected to find out the start and termination of HCl release. The PVC contents in the mixed plastics varied from 0% to 12% in mass and the heating rate for PVC was changed from 10 to 60°C/min. The morphologic parameters including “bubble ratio” (BR) and “pixel area” (PA) were found to have obvious features matching with PVC dechlorination process therefore can be used to characterize dechlorination of PVC alone and in the mixed plastics. It has been also found that shape of HCl emission curve is independent of PVC proportions in the mixed plastics, but shifts to right side with elevated heating rate; and all of which can be quantitatively reflected in morphologic parameters vs. temperature curves.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Plastic, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Polyvinyl chloride, Hydrochloric acid, Vinyl chloride, Plastic recycling

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Three organotin complexes containing furosemide as a ligand (L), Ph₃SnL, Me₂SnL₂ and Bu₂SnL₂, were synthesized and characterized. Octahedral geometry was proposed for the Me₂SnL₂ and Bu₂SnL₂, while the Ph₃SnL complex has trigonal bipyramid geometry. The synthesized organotin complexes (0.5% by weight) were used as additives to improve the photostability of poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, (40 μm thickness) upon irradiation. The changes imposed on functional groups, weight loss and viscosity average molecular weight of PVC films were monitored. The experimental results show that the rate of photodegradation was reduced in the presence of the organotin additives. The quantum yield of the chain scission was found to be low (9.8 × 10(-7)) when Ph₃SnL was used as a PVC photostabilizer compared to controlled PVC (5.18 × 10(-6)). In addition, the atomic force microscope images for the PVC films containing Ph₃SnL₂ after irradiation shows a smooth surface compared to the controlled films. The rate of PVC photostabilization was found to be highest for Ph₃SnL followed by Bu₂SnL₂ and Me₂SnL₂. It has been suggested that the organotin complexes could act as hydrogen chloride scavengers, ultraviolet absorbers, peroxide decomposers and/or radical scavengers.

Concepts: Chemical reaction, Functional group, Hydrogen, Molecule, Radical, Octahedron, Hydrogen chloride, Bipyramid

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This set of experiments examined the question of when a stimulus would be most effective in overshadowing the acquisition of long-delay taste aversion learning. In Experiment 1 rats drank sucrose, the target solution, followed by a hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution before lithium injection some time later; HCl was presented either early or late in the interval. The late condition produced greater overshadowing than the early condition. The importance of the HCl-injection interval was confirmed by Experiment 2, in which the sucrose-injection interval was varied. Experiment 3 found that even placement in a different context - an event that normally produces little overshadowing of a CTA - produced one-trial overshadowing of a sucrose aversion as long as the context was novel and exposure to it occurred immediately before lithium injection. No current theoretical account of one-trial overshadowing predicts that a late event produces more overshadowing than an early event. This result can, however, be accommodated within a modified version of the Rescorla-Wagner model.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Experiment, Theory, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid, Leblanc process, Vinyl chloride

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Chiral separation is crucial for investigating methamphetamine positive cases. While (S)-(+)-enantiomer of methamphetamine (S-MAMP) is a schedule II controlled substance, ®-(-)-enantiomer (R-MAMP) is an active ingredient of a few over-the-counter drugs in the United States. Among biological specimen types, hair provides greater detection window than blood, urine or oral fluid, and are therefore regarded with particular interest. Herein we describe a novel non-chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to directly determine methamphetamine enantiomeric composition (percentage) in hair specimens. Hair samples were washed once with acetone, powdered, incubated overnight at 53°C in 0.1M hydrochloric acid (HCl), and subjected to a solid phase extraction (SPE). The extracts were derivatized using Marfey’s reagent at 53°C for 60min. The final mixture was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 Kinetex analytical column and 60% (v/v) aqueous methanol as mobile phase (isocratic). Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was equipped with an electro-spray ionization (ESI) source operating in negative mode and the chromatograms were acquired using a multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) approach. The results were expressed as ratio of R- to S-MAMP and then derived to composition percentages without requiring quantitating each enantiomer. The method was precise and accurate across 0-100% S-composition at a range of 80-18,000pg/mg. The performance of the new method was compared with an (S)-(-)-N-trifluoroacetylprolyl chloride (S-TPC) derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method on authentic methamphetamine-positive hair samples. Not only the new Marfey’s reagent approach presented satisfactory correlation with the S-TPC approach, but it also exhibited significantly improved quality (e.g., S/N) of the chromatograms. In summary, our protocol employs cost effective and minimally hazardous Marfey’s reagent to derivatize trace amounts of methamphetamine extracted from hair samples and a non-chiral LC-MS/MS approach to separate and identify the two enantiomers. The method allows determination of the methamphetamine enantiomeric composition without requiring quantitation of each enantiomer and is therefore well suited for further investigate previously determined methamphetamine positive cases. This method represents a viable tool for evaluation of long-term drug exposure.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Chromatography, Analytical chemistry, Enantiomer, Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Quadrupole mass analyzer, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid

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Numerous technologies have been used to reclaim valuable chemicals from bio-oil. In this study, a combination of the basification-acidification process and column chromatography was employed for the separation of high-purity syringol and acetosyringone from rice straw-derived bio-oil. The optimal conditions for the basification-acidification process and the possible precipitation mechanism of the basification were explored. The results showed the following as the optimal conditions for the basification process: mass ratio of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2 ) to bio-oil, 2.0; reaction temperature, 70°C; and reaction time, 30 min. The results also showed that 1.6 mol of hydrochloric acid (HCl) per gram of bio-oil was optimal for the acidification. The precipitation was found to proceed via a possible mechanism involving the reaction of the phenolic compounds in the bio-oil with Ca(OH)2 to produce a precipitate. After further separation by column chromatography, purities of 91.4 and 96.2% (from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were obtained for syringol and acetosyringone, respectively. Their recoveries for the whole process were 73.0 and 39.3%, respectively.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Mass, Chromatography, PH, Calcium carbonate, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid

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A highly practical copper-catalyzed intermolecular chloroazidation of α,β-unsaturated amides has been described, giving a series of azidochlorides in good-to-excellent yields. The stable azidoiodine(iii) reagent and SOCl2 were used as azide and chlorine sources, respectively. The synthetic applications of this protocol were also explored by a variety of synthetically useful transformations.

Concepts: Functional group, Variety, Subspecies, Hydrogen chloride