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Concept: Hydrogen chloride


Both nitrate and pentachlorophenol (PCP) are familiar pollutants in aqueous environment. This research is focused on the simultaneous removal of nitrate and PCP from simulated contaminated groundwater using a laboratory-scale denitrification reactor packed with corncob as both carbon source and biofilm support. The reactor could be started up readily, and the removal efficiencies of nitrate and PCP reached up to approximately 98 % and 40-45 % when their initial concentrations were 50 mg N/L and 5 mg/L, respectively, after 15-day continuous operation at 10 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 25 °C. Approximately 91 % of PCP removal efficiency was achieved, with 2.47 mg/L of chloride ion release at 24 h of HRT. Eighty-two percent of chlorine in PCP removed was ionized. The productions of 3-chlorophenol and phenol and chloride ion release indicate that the reductive dechlorination reaction is a major degradation pathway of PCP under the experimental conditions.

Concepts: Concentration, Chemistry, Water pollution, Sodium chloride, Ion, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride


A series of novel benzosuberone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as antimicrobial agents by using substituted benzosuberone derivatives 1a,b as starting materials. Treatment of 1a,b with phenyl isothiocyanate in dimethylformamide was followed by treatment with cold HCl solution to afford the thioamides 4a,b, which was reacted with methyl iodide to obtain methylated products 5a,b. Cyclocondensation of 4a,b with chloroacetone 6 and phenacyl chloride 7 gave the corresponding thiophene derivatives 9a-c. Reaction of 4a,b with C-acetyl-N- arylhydrazonoyl chlorides 14a and 14b in boiling EtOH in the presence of triethylamine, afforded the corresponding 1,3,4-thiadiazoline derivatives 16a-d. The thioamides 4a,b were reacted with C-ethoxycarbonyl-N-arylhydrazonoyl chlorides 18a,b which afforded 1,3,4-thiadiazoline derivatives 19a-d. The benzosuberones 1a,b were treated with 3-mercaptopropanoic acid to give compounds 21a,b, which were cyclized to tricyclic thiopyran-4(5H)-one derivatives 22a,b. The latter compounds 22a,b were reacted with 3-mercaptopropanoic acid to give compounds 23a,b, which were cyclized tetracyclic ring systems 24a,b. Finally, compounds 24a,b were oxidized using hydrogen peroxide under reflux conditions to afford the oxidized form of the novel tetracyclic heterogeneous ring systems 25a,b. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activities. The structures of new compounds were characterized by ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, IR, and EI-MS.

Concepts: Oxygen, Hydrogen, Oxidizing agent, Hydrogen peroxide, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


For the first time we report a simple synthetic strategy to prepare copper sulfide counter electrodes on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using the inexpensive chemical bath deposition method in the presence of hydrochloric acid (HCl) at different deposition times. CuS nanoplatelet structures were uniformly grown on the FTO substrate with a good dispersion and optimized conditions. The growth process of the CuS nanoplatelets can be controlled by changing the deposition time in the presence of HCl. HCl acts as a complexing agent as well as improving S(2-) concentration against S atoms in this one-step preparation. The photovoltaic performance was significantly improved in terms of the power conversion efficiency (PCE), short-circuit density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), and the fill factor (FF). The optimized deposition time of CuS 60 min resulted in a higher PCE of 4.06%, Jsc of 12.92 mA cm(-2), Voc of 0.60 V, and a FF of 0.52 compared to CuS 50 min, CuS 70 min, and a Pt CE. The superior performance of the 60 min sample is due to the greater electrocatalytic activity and low charge transfer resistance at the interface of the CE and the polysulfide electrolyte. The concentration of Cu/S also had an important role in the formation of the CuS nanoplatelet structures. The optical bandgaps for the CuS with different morphologies were measured to be in the range of 1.98-2.28 eV. This improved photovoltaic performance is mainly attributed to the greater number of active reaction sites created by the CuS layer on the FTO substrate, which results large specific surface, superior electrical conductivity, low charge transfer resistance, and faster electron transport in the presence of HCl. Cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel-polarization measurements were used to investigate the electrocatalytic activity of the CuS and Pt CEs. This synthetic procedure not only provides high electrocatalytic activity for QDSSCs but could also be a cost-effective way to fabricate flexible electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells or supercapacitor applications.

Concepts: Electrochemistry, Solar cell, Electrode, Energy conversion, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Voltammetry, Hydrochloric acid


The total alkaloids from Nitraria sibirica leaves have been confirmed to exhibit significant protective effects against inflammatory renal injury, hypertension and albuminuria in angiotensin II-salt hypertension. In the present study, a separation method of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography was established for separation of the alkaloids from N. sibirica. The separation was performed with a solvent system of MtBE-n-BuOH-H2O (2:2:5, v/v) at a flow rate of 2.0mL/min. And 15mM triethylamine (TEA) was added to the upper organic phase, while 10mM hydrochloric acid was added to the lower aqueous phase. As a result, a new alkaloid, schobemine (5.6mg), and a known alkaloid, nitraramine (5.0mg), together with fractions A and B were obtained from the total alkaloids of N. sibirica. The fractions A and B were further purified by means of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography with solvent systems of n-hexane-n-BuOH-H2O (1.5:3.5:5, v/v) and (2:3:5, v/v), respectively. TEA (10mM) was added to the upper phase, and 10mM of HCl was added to the lower phase in above two solvent systems, respectively. As a result, a known alkaloid, schoberidine (5.0mg), and a new alkaloid, schoberimine (3.0mg) were obtained from fractions A and B, respectively. The purities of the compounds were measured by HPLC-ELSD, and their structures were identified by ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Analytical chemistry, Caffeine, Chlorine, Cocaine, Chemical engineering, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


Four new well-defined Cu(I) complexes bearing a C2 F5 ligand have been prepared and fully characterized: [(Ph3 P)2 CuC2 F5 ] (2), [(bpy)CuC2 F5 ] (3), [(Ph3 P)Cu(phen)C2 F5 ] (4), and [(IPr*)CuC2 F5 ] (5). X-ray structures of all four have been determined, showing that the C2 F5 -ligated Cu atom can be di- (5), tri- (2 and 3), and tetracoordinate (4). The mixed phen-PPh3 complex 4 is a highly efficient fluoroalkylating agent for a broad variety of acid chlorides. This high-yielding transformation represents the first general method for the synthesis of RCOC2 F5 from the corresponding RCOCl.

Concepts: Amine, Ammonia, Ligand, Complex, Complexity, Copper, Hydrogen chloride


The catalytic mechanism of Ru-based catalysts in the acetylene hydrochlorination reaction has been investigated via the density functional theory (DFT) method. To study the effect of the chlorine coordination number on the catalytic mechanism, Ru3Cl9, Ru3Cl7, Ru5Cl7, Ru3Cl3 and Ru3 clusters were chosen as the catalytic models. Our results show that the energy barrier for acetylene hydrochlorination on Ru3Cl9 was as high as 1.51 eV at 458 K. When the chlorine coordination number decreased, the energy barriers on Ru3Cl7, Ru5Cl7, Ru3Cl3 and Ru3 were 1.29, 0.89, 1.01 and 1.42 eV, respectively. On Ru3Cl9, the H and Cl atoms of HCl were simultaneously added to C2H2 to form C2H3Cl, while the reaction was divided into two steps on Ru3Cl7, Ru3Cl3 and Ru3 clusters. The first step was the addition of H atom of HCl to C2H2 to form C2H3˙, and the second step was the addition of Cl atom to C2H3˙ to form C2H3Cl. The step involving the addition of Cl was the rate-controlling step during the whole reaction. On Ru5Cl7 cluster, there was an additional step before the steps involving the addition of H and Cl: the transfer of H atom from HCl to Ru atom. This step was the rate-controlling step during the reaction of acetylene hydrochlorination on Ru5Cl7 and its energy barrier was the lowest among all the above-mentioned catalytic models. Therefore, the Ru5Cl7 cluster played the most predominant role in acetylene hydrochlorination with the largest reaction rate constant kTST of 10(3).

Concepts: Chemical reaction, Hydrogen, Chemistry, Chlorine, Reaction rate constant, Chemical kinetics, Activation energy, Hydrogen chloride


The world has experienced heavy thirst of energy as it has to face a dwindling supply of fossil fuel and polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic solar energy technology has been assigned great importance. Silicon tetrachloride is the main byproducts of polysilicon industry, and it’s volatile and highly toxic. Once silicon tetrachloride releases, it rapidly forms a dense gas cloud and reacts violently with water vapor in the atmosphere to form a gas cloud consisting of the mixture of silicon tetrachloride, hydrochloric acid and silicic acid, which endangers environment and people. In this article, numerical investigation is endeavored to explore the three dimensional dispersion and conversion behaviors of silicon tetrachloride release in the atmosphere. The k-ϵ model with buoyancy correction on k is applied for turbulence closure and modified EBU model is applied to describe the hydrolysis reaction of silicon tetrachloride. It is illustrated that the release of silicon tetrachloride forms a dense cloud, which sinks onto the ground driven by the gravity and wind and spreads both upwind and downwind. Complicated interaction occurs between the silicon tetrachloride cloud and the air mass. The main body of the dense cloud moves downwind and reacts with the water vapor on the interface between the dense cloud and the air mass to generate a toxic mixture of silicon tetrachloride, hydrogen chloride and silicic acid. A large coverage in space is formed by the toxic mixture and imposes chemical hazards to the environment. The exothermic hydrolysis reaction consumes water and releases reaction heat resulting in dehydration and temperature rise, which imposes further hazards to the ecosystem over the affected space.

Concepts: Water, Hydrogen, Precipitation, Acid dissociation constant, Silicon, Chlorine, Solar energy, Hydrogen chloride


SUMMARY Resin-based materials that show promising effects for preventing the progression of erosion have been studied. This in vitro study evaluated the effects of applying resin-based materials, including resin infiltration, on previously eroded enamel subjected to erosive challenges. The influence of enamel surface etching prior to application of the material was also studied. Bovine enamel blocks were immersed in hydrochloric acid (HCl), 0.01 M (pH 2.3), for 30 seconds in order to form a softened erosion lesion. The blocks were then randomly divided into nine groups (n=12) and treated as follows: C = control without treatment; Hel = pit & fissure resin sealant (Helioseal Clear); Adh = two-step self-etching adhesive system (Adhese); Tet = two-step conventional adhesive system (Tetric N-bond); and Inf = infiltrant (Icon). The Helno, Adhno, Tetno, and Infno groups received the same materials without (or with no) surface conditioning. The depth of the material’s penetration into softened erosion lesions was qualitatively analyzed using reflection and fluorescence confocal microscopy. After application of the materials, the blocks were immersed in HCl for two minutes; this step was followed by immersion in artificial saliva for 120 minutes four times a day for five days (erosive cycling). Both the enamel alteration and material thickness were analyzed using profilometry, and the results were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p>0.05). Images from the confocal microscopy showed minimal penetration of Adh/Adhno and deep penetration of Inf/Infno into the erosive lesions. The groups Hel, Adh, Inf, Tetno, and Infno resulted in the formation of a layer of material over the enamel, which was effective in inhibiting the progression of erosion. In conclusion, the infiltrant, with or without etching, was able to penetrate and protect the enamel against dental erosion. The other resin-based materials, except for the two-step conventional adhesive, were able to penetrate and inhibit the progression of erosive lesions only when they were applied after enamel etching.

Concepts: Hydrogen, PH, In vitro, Inhibitor, Chlorine, Xanthine oxidase inhibitor, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


We herein report that spherical and sheetlike Ag/AgCl nanostructures could be controllably synthesized by means of chemical reactions between AgNO3 and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) surfactant. In this synthesis system, AgNO3 works as silver source, while CTAC serves not only as chlorine source but also as directing reagent for a controllable nanofabrication. We show that compared to the spherical Ag/AgCl nanostructures, the sheetlike counterparts, wherein the AgCl nanospecies are predominantly enriched with {111} facets, could exhibit superior catalytic performances towards the photodegradation of methyl orange. Interestingly, we further demonstrate that when 4-chlorophenol or phenol is used as the substrates, the sheetlike Ag/AgCl nanostructures exhibit inferior catalytic reactivity, whereas the spherical counterparts display superior catalytic performances comparatively. Our results disclose new insights on the facet-dependent catalytic performances with regard to a facet-selective but substrate-sensitive photoinduced electron-hole separation.

Concepts: Chemical reaction, Catalysis, Chemical synthesis, Chlorine, Silver, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride, Silver chloride


Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are among the most toxic chemicals and the main restriction on municipal solid waste incineration. To exert more effective control over the formation of dioxin homologues during municipal solid waste incineration, it is significant to investigate dioxin-related compounds. Despite the numerous studies about PCDD/Fs, a unified understanding regarding many problems has yet to be reached because the homologues of PCDD/Fs are excessive, the measurement of PCDD/Fs is difficult, and the formation mechanisms of PCDD/Fs are complicated. Firstly, this paper briefly introduces the different formation mechanisms of PCDD/Fs, including high temperature homogeneous reaction PCDD/Fs formation and low temperature heterogeneous reaction PCDD/Fs formation. Then the sources of PCDD/Fs including precursors (chlorophenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and residual carbon are summarized. In particular, this paper analyzes the substances that influence PCDD/Fs formation and their impact mechanisms, including different categories of chlorine (Cl2, HCl and chloride in fly ash), O2, copper, sulfur, water, and nitrogen compounds (ammonia and urea). Due to the high cost and complexity of PCDD/Fs measurement, PCDD/Fs indicators, especially chlorobenzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are summarized, to find an effective surrogate for quick, convenient and real-time monitoring of PCDD/Fs. Finally, according to the results of the current study, recommendations for further research and industrial applications prospects are proposed.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Waste management, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Waste-to-energy, Biodegradable waste