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Concept: Hydrogen chloride


Both nitrate and pentachlorophenol (PCP) are familiar pollutants in aqueous environment. This research is focused on the simultaneous removal of nitrate and PCP from simulated contaminated groundwater using a laboratory-scale denitrification reactor packed with corncob as both carbon source and biofilm support. The reactor could be started up readily, and the removal efficiencies of nitrate and PCP reached up to approximately 98 % and 40-45 % when their initial concentrations were 50 mg N/L and 5 mg/L, respectively, after 15-day continuous operation at 10 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 25 °C. Approximately 91 % of PCP removal efficiency was achieved, with 2.47 mg/L of chloride ion release at 24 h of HRT. Eighty-two percent of chlorine in PCP removed was ionized. The productions of 3-chlorophenol and phenol and chloride ion release indicate that the reductive dechlorination reaction is a major degradation pathway of PCP under the experimental conditions.

Concepts: Concentration, Chemistry, Water pollution, Sodium chloride, Ion, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride


The pressure-temperature phase diagram of ice displays a perplexing variety of structurally distinct phases. In the century-long history of scientific research on ice, the proton-ordered ice phases numbered XIII through XV were discovered only recently. Despite considerable effort, none of the transitions leading from the low-temperature ordered ices VIII, IX, XI, XIII, XIV and XV to their high-temperature disordered counterparts were experimentally found to display the full Pauling entropy. Here we report calorimetric measurements on suitably high-pressure-treated, hydrogen chloride-doped ice XIV that demonstrate just this at the transition to ice XII. Dielectric spectroscopy on undoped and on variously doped ice XII crystals reveals that addition of hydrogen chloride, the agent triggering complete proton order in ice XIV, enhances the precursor dynamics strongest. These discoveries provide new insights into the puzzling observation that different dopants trigger the formation of different proton-ordered ice phases.

Concepts: Crystal, Hydrogen, Ice, Phase, Chlorine, Triple point, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


An effective analysis method was developed based on a chemometric tool for the simultaneous quantification of five different post-harvest pesticides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), carbendazim, thiabendazole, iprodione, and prochloraz) in fruits and vegetables. In the modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method, the factors and responses for optimization of the extraction and cleanup analyses were compared using the Plackett-Burman (P-B) screening design. Furthermore, the significant factors (toluene percentage, hydrochloric acid (HCl) percentage, and graphitized carbon black (GCB) amount) were optimized using a central composite design (CCD) combined with Derringer’s desirability function (DF). The limits of quantification (LOQs) were estimated to be 1.0 μg/kg for 2,4-D, carbendazim, thiabendazole, and prochloraz, and 1.5 μg/kg for iprodione in food matrices. The mean recoveries were in the range of 70.4-113.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 16.9% at three spiking levels. The measurement uncertainty of the analytical method was determined using the bottom-up approach, which yielded an average value of 7.6%. Carbendazim was most frequently found in real samples analyzed using the developed method. Consequently, the analytical method can serve as an advantageous and rapid tool for determination of five preservative pesticides in fruits and vegetables.

Concepts: Hydrogen, PH, Arithmetic mean, Mean, Standard deviation, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


The reaction of tert-butyl esters with SOCl2 at room temperature provides acid chlorides in unpurified yields of 89% or greater. Benzyl, methyl, ethyl, and isopropyl esters are essentially unreactive under these conditions, allowing for the selective conversion of tert-butyl esters to acid chlorides in the presence of other esters.

Concepts: Alcohol, Functional groups, Carboxylic acid, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Acyl chloride, Chlorides, Thionyl chloride


Additive manufacturing techniques such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) allow carefully controlled production of complex porous structures such as scaffolds. These advanced structures can offer many interesting advantages over conventionally produced products in terms of biological response and patient specific design. The surface finish of AM parts is often poor because of the layer wise nature of the process and adhering particles. Loosening of these particles after implantation should be avoided, as this could put the patient’s health at risk. In this study the use of hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixtures for surface treatment of cobalt-chromium F75 scaffolds produced by SLM is investigated. A 27% HCl and 8% H2O2 etchant proved effective in removing adhering particles while retaining the quasi-static and fatigue performance of the scaffolds.

Concepts: Oxygen, Hydrogen, Hydrogen peroxide, Chlorine, Manufacturing, Hydrogen chloride, Etching, Hydrochloric acid


Amidobenzylidene ruthenium chelates - latent catalysts of olefin metathesis can be easily activated by the addition of Brønsted or Lewis acids. Their activation in the presence of hydrogen chloride involves the formation of catalytically active trans-dichloro carbamatobenzylidene ruthenium chelates.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Catalysis, Hydrogenation, Olefin metathesis, Alkene, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


Acetylene hydrochlorination is a major industrial technology for manufacturing vinyl chloride monomer in regions with abundant coal resources; however, it is plagued by the use of mercury(II) chloride catalyst. The development of a nonmercury catalyst has been extensively explored. Herein, we report a N-doped carbon catalyst derived from ZIF-8 with both high activity and quite good stability. The acetylene conversion reached 92% and decreased slightly during a 200 h test at 220 °C and atmospheric pressure. Experimental studies and theoretical calculations indicate that C atoms adjacent to the pyridinic N are the active sites, and coke deposition covering pyridinic N is the main reason for catalyst deactivation. The performance of those N-doped carbons makes it possible for practical applications with further effort. Furthermore, the result also provides guidance for designing metal-free catalysts for similar reactions.

Concepts: Iron, Hydrogen, Carbon, Charcoal, Coal, Abundance of the chemical elements, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


This study aimed to formulate floating gastroretentive tablets containing metformin hydrochloric acid (HCl), using various grades of hydrogel such as tamarind powders and xanthan to overcome short gastric residence time of the conventional dosage forms. Different concentrations of the hydrogels were tested to determine the formulation that could provide a sustained release of 12 h. Eleven formulations with different ratios of tamarind seed powder/tamarind kernel powder (TKP):xanthan were prepared. The physical parameters were observed, and in vitro drug-release studies of the prepared formulations were carried out. Optimal formulation was assessed for physicochemical properties, thermal stability, and chemical interaction followed by in vivo gamma scintigraphy study. MKP3 formulation with a TKP:xanthan ratio of 3:2 was found to have 99.87% release over 12 h. Furthermore, in vivo gamma scintigraphy study was carried out for the optimized formulation in healthy New Zealand White rabbits, and the pharmacokinetic parameters of developed formulations were obtained. (153)Sm2O3 was used to trace the profile of release in the gastrointestinal tract of the rabbits, and the drug release was analyzed. The time (Tmax) at which the maximum concentration of metformin HCl in the blood (Cmax) was observed, and it was extended four times for the gastroretentive formulation in comparison with the formulation without polymers. Cmax and the half-life were found to be within an acceptable range. It is therefore concluded that MKP3 is the optimal formulation for sustained release of metformin HCl over a period of 12 h as a result of its floating properties in the gastric region.

Concepts: Pharmacology, In vivo, In vitro, Chlorine, Digestion, Gastric acid, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been suggested as revolutionary biodegradable materials. However, fast degradation hinders its clinic application. To improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy (JDBM), magnesium-aluminum-layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) was successfully introduced into Mg(OH)2 coating by hydrothermal treatment. The anions in the interlayer of Mg-Al LDH can be replaced by chloride ions, resulting in a relatively low chloride ion concentration near the surface of the coating. The favorable corrosion resistance of the coating was proved by polarization curves and hydrogen collection test. The Mg-Al LDH significantly promoted cell adhesion, migration and proliferation in vitro. In addition, the coating almost fulfilled the request of the clinical application in the hemolysis ratio test. Finally, in vivo results indicated that the coating offered the greatest long-lasting protection from corrosion and triggered the mildest inflammation comparing to the pure Mg(OH)2 coatings and untreated magnesium alloy. Mg(OH)2 coating containing Mg-Al LDH in the present study shows a promising application in improving anticorrosion and biocompatibility of Mg alloys, and might act as a platform for a further modification of Mg alloys ascribed to its special layer structure.

Concepts: Sodium chloride, Oxide, Ion, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride, Corrosion, Hydrochloric acid


The carbonate radical anion CO3(●-) is a key intermediate in tropospheric anion chemistry. Despite its radical character, only a small number of reactions have been reported in the literature. Here we investigate the gas-phase reactions of CO3(●-) and CO3(●-)(H2O) with HCl under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Bare CO3(●-) forms OHCl(●-) very slowly, with a rate constant of 4.2x10(-12) cm(3) s(-1). Hydration accelerates the reaction, and ligand exchange of H2O against HCl proceeds with a rate of 2.7x10(-10) cm(3) s(-1). Quantum chemical calculations reveal that OHCl(●-) is best described as an OH(●) hydrogen bonded to Cl(-), while the ligand exchange product is Cl(-)(HCO3(●)). Under tropospheric conditions, where CO3(●-)(H2O) is the dominant species, Cl(-)(HCO3(●)) is efficiently formed. These reactions must be included in models of tropospheric anion chemistry.

Concepts: Quantum mechanics, Chemical reaction, Hydrogen, Chemistry, Ion, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid