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Concept: Hydrogen chloride

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Both nitrate and pentachlorophenol (PCP) are familiar pollutants in aqueous environment. This research is focused on the simultaneous removal of nitrate and PCP from simulated contaminated groundwater using a laboratory-scale denitrification reactor packed with corncob as both carbon source and biofilm support. The reactor could be started up readily, and the removal efficiencies of nitrate and PCP reached up to approximately 98 % and 40-45 % when their initial concentrations were 50 mg N/L and 5 mg/L, respectively, after 15-day continuous operation at 10 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 25 °C. Approximately 91 % of PCP removal efficiency was achieved, with 2.47 mg/L of chloride ion release at 24 h of HRT. Eighty-two percent of chlorine in PCP removed was ionized. The productions of 3-chlorophenol and phenol and chloride ion release indicate that the reductive dechlorination reaction is a major degradation pathway of PCP under the experimental conditions.

Concepts: Concentration, Chemistry, Water pollution, Sodium chloride, Ion, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride

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Two-electron mixed-valence compounds promote the rearrangement of the two-electron bond photochemically. Such complexes are especially effective at managing the activation of hydrohalic acids (HX). Closed HX-splitting cycles require proton reduction to H2 and halide oxidation to X2 to be both accomplished, the latter of which is thermodynamically and kinetically demanding. Phosphazane-bridged Rh2 catalysts have been especially effective at activating HX via photogenerated ligand-bridged intermediates; such intermediates are analogues of the classical ligand-bridged intermediates proposed in binuclear elimination reactions. Herein, a new family of phosphazane-bridged Rh2 photocatalysts has been developed where the halide-bridged geometry is designed into the ground state. The targeted geometries were accessed by replacing previously used alkyl isocyanides with aryl isocyanide ligands, which provided access to families of Rh2L1 complexes. H2 evolution with Rh2 catalysts typically proceeds via two-electron photoreduction, protonation to afford Rh hydrides, and photochemical H2 evolution. Herein, we have directly observed each of these steps in stoichiometric reactions. Reactivity differences between Rh2 chloride and bromide complexes have been delineated. H2 evolution from both HCl and HBr proceeds with a halide-bridged Rh2 hydride photoresting state. The H2-evolution efficiency of the new family of halide-bridged catalysts is compared to a related catalyst in which ligand-bridged geometries are not stabilized in the molecular ground state, and the new complexes are found to more efficiently facilitate H2 evolution.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Chemical reaction, Hydrogen, Chemistry, Hydrogenation, Organic reaction, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride

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The recycling of platinum-group metals from wastes such as autocatalytic converters is getting growing attention due to the scarcity of these precious metals and the market pressure originated by increase of demand in current and emerging applications. Hydrometallurgical treatment of such wastes is an alternative way to the most usual pyrometallurgical processes based on smelter operations. This paper focuses on the development of a leaching process using cupric chloride as oxidising agent, in HCl media, for recovery of palladium and rhodium from a spent catalyst. The chloride media allows the adequate conditions for oxidising and solubilising the metals, as demonstrated by equilibrium calculations based on thermodynamic data. The experimental study of the leaching process revealed that Pd solubilisation is clearly easier than that of Rh. The factors temperature, time, and HCl and Cu(2+) concentrations were significant regarding Pd and Rh leaching, the latter requiring higher factor values to achieve the same results. Leaching yields of 95% Pd and 86% Rh were achieved under optimised conditions (T=80°C, t=4h, [HCl]=6M, [Cu(2+)]=0.3M).

Concepts: Hydrogen, Catalysis, Catalytic converter, Chlorine, Chloride, Palladium, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid

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A high-throughput analytical method has been developed for the determination of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in aqueous samples. A recently introduced octadecyl (C18) disk for semi-automated solid-phase extraction of PCDD/Fs in water samples with a high level of particulate material has been tested for the analysis of dioxins. A new type of C18 disk specially designed for the analysis of hexane extractable material (HEM), but never previously reported for use in PCDD/Fs analysis. This kind of disk allows a higher filtration flow, and therefore the time of analysis is reduced. The solid-phase extraction technique is used to change samples from liquid to solid, and therefore pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) can be used in the pre-treatment. In order to achieve efficient purification, extracts from the PLE are purified using an automated Power-prep system with disposable silica, alumina, and carbon columns. Quantitative analyses of PCDD/Fs were performed by GC-HRMS using multi-ion detection (MID) mode. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of water samples from the wastewater treatment system of a vinyl chloride monomer plant. The entire procedure is in agreement with EPA1613 recommendations regarding the blank control, MDLs (method detection limits), accuracy, and precision. The high-throughput method not only meets the requirements of international standards, but also shortens the required analysis time from 2weeks to 3d.

Concepts: Water, Analytical chemistry, Sewage treatment, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, Vinyl, Solid phase extraction

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Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate is being evaporated by solar/thermal evaporators to meet zero liquid discharge standards. The resulted evaporated residue (ER) is contaminated with both organic and inorganic mixture of salts. The generation of ER is exceedingly huge in the leather industry, which is being collected and stored under the shelter to avoid groundwater contamination by the leachate. In the present investigation, a novel process for the separation of sodium chloride from ER was developed, to reduce the environmental impact on RO concentrate discharge. The sodium chloride was selectively separated by the reactive precipitation method using hydrogen chloride gas. The selected process variables were optimized for maximum yield ofNaCl from the ER (optimum conditions were pH, 8.0; temperature, 35 degrees C; concentration of ER, 600 g/L and HCl purging time, 3 min). The recovered NaCl purity was verified using a cyclic voltagramm.

Concepts: Water, Hydrogen, Sodium chloride, Chlorine, Chloride, Salt, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid

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Substituted salicylaldehydes are converted to fused tetracyclic isoxazoles through a synthetic sequence incorporating substitution of 2-bromo-2-cyclohexen-1-ol, formation of an oxime function, conversion to an oximoyl chloride, intramolecular [3 + 2] cycloaddition, and elimination of an equivalent of hydrogen bromide using silver(I) carbonate. Six examples of this sequence are presented.

Concepts: Nucleophilic substitution, Organic reaction, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Bromine, Bromides

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The ex vivo instability of bilobalide containing three γ-lactone rings has been paid less attention by researchers who developed bioanalytical methods for bilobalide. In the present study, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of bilobalide in rat plasma was developed with special consideration of ex vivo bilobalide stability. Several important factors affecting the stability of bilobalide in sampling and handling procedures were investigated. To prevent the ex vivo degradation of bilobalide, EDTA instead of heparin was used as an anticoagulant as well as an esterase inhibitor for blood collection and the separation of plasma was performed at 4 °C. 20 μL of plasma sample was acidified with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid, and then extracted with ethyl ether-methylene chloride (2:1, v/v). The extract was chromatographed on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 μm) column using acetonitrile-10mM ammonium acetate-formic acid (90:10:0.4, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The analyte and the internal standard (ginkgolide B) were detected by selected reaction monitoring mode via negative electrospray ionization. The method was fully validated and proved to be linear over a concentration range of 5.0-5000 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 5.2% and the accuracy was within 92.5-101%. The extraction recoveries ranged from 80.7% to 86.7%. The proposed method was successfully applied to a preclinical pharmacokinetic study of bilobalide in rats after intragastric administration of a single dose of bilobalide at 7, 14 and 28 mg/kg.

Concepts: Blood, Hydrogen, Analytical chemistry, PH, Chlorine, Instability, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid

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The 1:1 Hydrogen-bonded complex of fluoroform (CHF3) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) was studied using matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy and ab initio computations. Using B3LYP and MP2 levels of theory with 6-311++G (d,p) and aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets, the structures of the complexes and the energies were computed. For the 1:1 CHF3-HCl complexes ab initio computations showed two minima, one cyclic and another acyclic. The cyclic complex is found to have C-H…Cl and C-F…H interactions, where CHF3 and HCl sub-molecules act as proton donor and proton acceptor respectively. The second minimum corresponded to an acyclic complex stabilized only by the C-F…H interaction, in which CHF3 is the proton acceptor. Experimentally, we could trap the 1:1 CHF3-HCl cyclic complex in an argon matrix, where a blue-shift in the C-H stretching mode of the CHF3 sub-molecule was observed. To understand the nature of interactions, Atoms in Molecules (AIM) and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis were carried to unravel the reasons for blue-shifting of the C-H stretching frequency in these complexes.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Hydrogen, Proton, Chemistry, Atom, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid

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Care should be exercised when using CH2 Cl2 as a solvent for reactions in which amines are a reagent, since undesirable deactivation of cationic copper(I) and gold(I) catalysts to form the corresponding inactive neutral chloride complexes [LMCl] (M=Cu or Au) can occur as a result of the generation of hydrogen chloride in the medium. Cu(I) and Au(I) deactivation has been proved for the Mannich three-component coupling reaction. A series of Cu(I) and Au(I) complexes with potential mechanistic implications were isolated and characterized by X-ray crystallography.

Concepts: X-ray, Chemical reaction, Hydrogen, X-ray crystallography, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid

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A pyridine containing amino acid based gelator forms gel in aqueous media in the presence of hydrochloric acid and the chloride ion is found to be very selective for gelation. The gelator is successfully applied for the detection and trapping of hydrogen chloride gas and this indicates its probable application for removing hazardous HCl gas from the environment.

Concepts: Ammonia, Hydrogen, Sodium chloride, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid, Chlorides