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Concept: Hydrogen chloride


Both nitrate and pentachlorophenol (PCP) are familiar pollutants in aqueous environment. This research is focused on the simultaneous removal of nitrate and PCP from simulated contaminated groundwater using a laboratory-scale denitrification reactor packed with corncob as both carbon source and biofilm support. The reactor could be started up readily, and the removal efficiencies of nitrate and PCP reached up to approximately 98 % and 40-45 % when their initial concentrations were 50 mg N/L and 5 mg/L, respectively, after 15-day continuous operation at 10 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 25 °C. Approximately 91 % of PCP removal efficiency was achieved, with 2.47 mg/L of chloride ion release at 24 h of HRT. Eighty-two percent of chlorine in PCP removed was ionized. The productions of 3-chlorophenol and phenol and chloride ion release indicate that the reductive dechlorination reaction is a major degradation pathway of PCP under the experimental conditions.

Concepts: Concentration, Chemistry, Water pollution, Sodium chloride, Ion, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride


The pressure-temperature phase diagram of ice displays a perplexing variety of structurally distinct phases. In the century-long history of scientific research on ice, the proton-ordered ice phases numbered XIII through XV were discovered only recently. Despite considerable effort, none of the transitions leading from the low-temperature ordered ices VIII, IX, XI, XIII, XIV and XV to their high-temperature disordered counterparts were experimentally found to display the full Pauling entropy. Here we report calorimetric measurements on suitably high-pressure-treated, hydrogen chloride-doped ice XIV that demonstrate just this at the transition to ice XII. Dielectric spectroscopy on undoped and on variously doped ice XII crystals reveals that addition of hydrogen chloride, the agent triggering complete proton order in ice XIV, enhances the precursor dynamics strongest. These discoveries provide new insights into the puzzling observation that different dopants trigger the formation of different proton-ordered ice phases.

Concepts: Crystal, Hydrogen, Ice, Phase, Chlorine, Triple point, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


In recent years, there has been a growing interest in using graphene as a synthesis platform for polymers, zero-dimensional (0D) materials, one-dimensional materials (1D), and two-dimensional (2D) materials. Here, we report the investigation of the growth of germanium nanowires (GeNWs) and germanium nanocrawlers (GeNCs) on single-layer graphene surfaces. GeNWs and GeNCs are synthesized on graphene films by gold nanoparticles catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. The addition of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl) at the nucleation step increased the propensity toward GeNCs growth on the surface. As the time lag before HCl introduction during the nucleation step increased, a significant change in the number of out-of-plane GeNWs versus in-plane GeNCs was observed. The nucleation temperature and time played a key role in the formation of GeNCs as well. The fraction of GeNCs (NCs) decreased from 0.95 ± 0.01 to 0.66 ± 0.07 when the temperature was kept at 305°C for 15 sec versus maintained at 305°C throughout the process, respectively. GeNCs exhibit <112> as the preferred growth direction whereas GeNWs exhibit both <112> and <110> as the preferred growth directions. Finally, our growth model suggests a possible mechanism for the preference of an in-plane GeNC growth on graphene versus GeNW on SiO2. These findings open up unique opportunities for fundamental studies of crystal growth on graphene, as well as enable exploration of new electronic interfaces between group IV materials and graphene, potentially toward designing new geometries for hybrid materials sensors.

Concepts: Chemical reaction, Hydrogen, Dimension, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride, Vapor-liquid-solid method, Hydrochloric acid


An efficient one-pot four-component reaction for the synthesis of dithiocarbamates using carbon disulfide, cyclic imines, acid chlorides and commercially available primary or secondary amines has been developed by performing an acid chloride addition to a heterocyclic imine followed by subsequent nucleophilic substitution of in situ generated dithiocarbamic acid. With the aid of the newly developed and powerful multicomponent reaction, a direct route for the synthesis of 24 unknown dithiocarbamates in moderate to good yield under mild conditions is enabled.

Concepts: Alcohol, Amine, Functional group, Nucleophilic substitution, Carbonyl, Imine, Hydrogen chloride, Acyl chloride


Acid chlorides are an important class of compounds and their high reactivity and instability has prompted us to develop a straightforward procedure for their synthesis with on-demand and on-site synthesis possibilities. The focus of this report is acryloyl chloride, mainly important for the acrylate and polymer industry. A continuous-flow methodology was developed for the fast and selective synthesis of the otherwise highly unstable acryloyl chloride. Three routes were investigated in a microreactor setup and all three can potentially be used for its production. The methodology was further expanded to the synthesis of other unstable acid chlorides by both the thionyl chloride and the oxalyl chloride mediated processes. The most sustainable method was the oxalyl chloride mediated procedure under solvent-free conditions, in which near-equimolar amounts of carboxylic acid and oxalyl chloride were used in the presence of catalytic amounts of DMF at room temperature. Within 1 to 3 min, nearly full conversions into the acid chlorides were achieved.

Concepts: Carboxylic acid, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Acrylic acid, Acyl chloride, Thionyl chloride, Oxalyl chloride, Acyl chlorides


An annulation of arylthioamides with 3-bromopyruvic acid chloride to 5-hydroxy-4H-1,3-thiazin-4-ones has been developed. The initial condensation affords two regioisomeric thiazolinone intermediates in a temperature-dependent manner. The synthesis of the 2-aminophenylthiazinone derivative led to the revision of the previously proposed structure of thiasporine A. Synthesis of the revised structure and NMR analysis revealed that thiasporine A had been isolated as a carboxylate.

Concepts: Scientific method, NMR spectroscopy, Revision, Mathematical analysis, Chemical synthesis, Hydrogen chloride, One-pot synthesis, Tropinone


Five new 3-(4-arylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl 4-propoxybenzoates were designed and synthesized as potential dual antihypertensive agents. The compounds were prepared as free bases and subsequently transformed to hydrochloride salts. The position of protonation of nitrogen atoms in the piperazine ring of hydrochloride salts was determined by means of (13)C-CP/MAS and (15)N-CP/MAS NMR and IR spectroscopy. Using these solid-state analytical techniques, it was found that both nitrogen atoms were protonated when excess hydrogen chloride was used for preparation of salts. On the other hand, when the equimolar amount of hydrogen chloride was used, piperazine nitrogen substituted by aryl was protonated.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Proton, Nitrogen, Infrared, Hydrogen chloride


The reversible sorption preconcentration of noble metals (NMs) prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was investigated. Six new hypercrosslinked polystyrene sorbents were tested. The dependence of the degree of NMs sorption on the average degree of polymer network crosslinking and pore diameters was investigated. It was found that sorbents HP-100/6, HP-300/6 and HP-500/6 have low efficiency of NMs chlorocomplexes extraction. Among Stirosorb sorbents (Stirosorb-2, Stirosorb-514 and Stirosorb-584) the highest efficiency of the extraction of NMs' chlorocomplexes has Stirosorb-514. Tributylamine (TBA), N-methylbenzylamine (MBA), N,N-dimethylbenzylamine (DMBA), N,N-dibenzylmetylamine (DBMA) were studied as the reagents for extraction of Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt and Au chlorocomplexes from hydrochloric acid solutions in the form of ion associates by reversed-phase mechanism. The reversible quantitative extraction of Ru, Pd, Pt and Au in system Stirosorb-514 - TBA - 1M HCl in ethanol as eluent was achieved. It was found that resulting eluates do not contain matrix components which may cause spectral interferences on the stage of NMs determination by ICP-MS. The found scheme of NMs reversible sorption was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials of basic and ultrabasic rocks GPt-5, GPt-6 and SARM-7. Good agreement between the measured NMs concentrations and the certified values was demonstrated. The achieved limits of detection for Ru, Pd, Pt and Au vary within 10(-8)-10(-7)wt% range.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Analytical chemistry, Trigraph, Chlorine, Chloride, Palladium, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


Synthesis of 2,3-dihydrobenzo[f][1,2,5]thiadiazepin-4(5H)-one 1,1-dioxides from polymer-supported -amino acids is described herein. Different -amino acids immobilized on Wang resin were sulfonylated with various 2-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chlorides. The resulting 2-nitrobenzenesulfonamides were alkylated with alcohols according to the Fukuyama-Mitsunobu procedure. After reduction of the nitro group and cleavage from the polymer support, the final intermediates were reacted with thionyl chloride, and target compounds of good crude purity and acceptable overall yields were obtained. The chiral HPLC studies revealed the impact of the cyclization step on the resulting stereochemistry. The developed strategy allows for simple production of desired compounds with the application of parallel/combinatorial solid-phase synthesis using commercially available building blocks.

Concepts: Alcohol, Carbon dioxide, Amine, Chlorine, Aldehyde, Hydrogen chloride, Chlorides, Thionyl chloride


An unprecedented enantioselective oxetane opening with chloride provides access to a range of highly functionalized three-carbon building blocks. The excellent enantiocontrol is enabled by not only a new catalyst, but also by the unusual use of wet molecular sieves for the controlled release of HCl.

Concepts: Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid