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Concept: Hydrogen chloride


Both nitrate and pentachlorophenol (PCP) are familiar pollutants in aqueous environment. This research is focused on the simultaneous removal of nitrate and PCP from simulated contaminated groundwater using a laboratory-scale denitrification reactor packed with corncob as both carbon source and biofilm support. The reactor could be started up readily, and the removal efficiencies of nitrate and PCP reached up to approximately 98 % and 40-45 % when their initial concentrations were 50 mg N/L and 5 mg/L, respectively, after 15-day continuous operation at 10 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 25 °C. Approximately 91 % of PCP removal efficiency was achieved, with 2.47 mg/L of chloride ion release at 24 h of HRT. Eighty-two percent of chlorine in PCP removed was ionized. The productions of 3-chlorophenol and phenol and chloride ion release indicate that the reductive dechlorination reaction is a major degradation pathway of PCP under the experimental conditions.

Concepts: Concentration, Chemistry, Water pollution, Sodium chloride, Ion, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride


Ingestion of contaminated soil is one potential internal exposure pathway in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Doses from this pathway can be overestimated if the availability of radioactive nuclides in soils for the gastrointestinal tract is not considered. The concept of bioaccessibility has been adopted to evaluate this availability based on in vitro tests. This study evaluated the bioaccessibility of radioactive cesium from soils via the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) and the extractability of those via an extraction test with 1 mol/L of hydrochloric acid (HCl). The bioaccessibility obtained in the PBET was 5.3% ± 1%, and the extractability in the tests with HCl was 16% ± 3%. The bioaccessibility was strongly correlated with the extractability. This result indicates the possibility that the extractability in HCl can be used as a good predictor of the bioaccessibility with PBET. In addition, we assessed the doses to children from the ingestion of soil via hand-to-mouth activity based on our PBET results using a probabilistic approach considering the spatial distribution of radioactive cesium in Date City in Fukushima Prefecture and the interindividual differences in the surveyed amounts of soil ingestion in Japan. The results of this assessment indicate that even if children were to routinely ingest a large amount of soil with relatively high contamination, the radiation doses from this pathway are negligible compared with doses from external exposure owing to deposited radionuclides in Fukushima Prefecture.

Concepts: Chernobyl disaster, Digestive system, Chlorine, Nuclear power, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid, Fukushima Prefecture, Tōhoku region


The pressure-temperature phase diagram of ice displays a perplexing variety of structurally distinct phases. In the century-long history of scientific research on ice, the proton-ordered ice phases numbered XIII through XV were discovered only recently. Despite considerable effort, none of the transitions leading from the low-temperature ordered ices VIII, IX, XI, XIII, XIV and XV to their high-temperature disordered counterparts were experimentally found to display the full Pauling entropy. Here we report calorimetric measurements on suitably high-pressure-treated, hydrogen chloride-doped ice XIV that demonstrate just this at the transition to ice XII. Dielectric spectroscopy on undoped and on variously doped ice XII crystals reveals that addition of hydrogen chloride, the agent triggering complete proton order in ice XIV, enhances the precursor dynamics strongest. These discoveries provide new insights into the puzzling observation that different dopants trigger the formation of different proton-ordered ice phases.

Concepts: Crystal, Hydrogen, Ice, Phase, Chlorine, Triple point, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


As a naturally abundant biopolymer, chitosan is considered to be a suitable adsorbent for stannate (SnO3(2-)) in tin plating wastewater. However, mass transfer of the adsorbent and its recycling remain challenging problems. Though flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is highly flammable due to the addition of plasticizers, the traditional flame retardant, antimony trioxide (Sb2O3), is potentially harmful. In this study, chitosan was anchored onto the surface of PVC resin to adsorb SnO3(2-) from wastewater. Thereafter, tin-doped chitosan-coated PVC resin was readily recycled and processed into a flexible PVC composite (modified fPVC). The limiting oxygen index value of the modified fPVC increased to 33.1%, and the peak heat release rate decreased to 161kW/m(2). In addition to reducing fire hazards, this approach also decreased the content of harmful hydrogen chloride gas released during the combustion of modified fPVC. Meanwhile, the tensile properties of modified fPVC were enhanced compared with those of the Sb2O3-treated sample. These results indicated the synthesis of an eco-friendly Sb2O3-free flexible PVC composite that poses a low fire hazard.

Concepts: Oxygen, Hydrogen, Oxide, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Polyvinyl chloride, Vinyl chloride, Antimony trioxide


A novel three-component reaction of pyridine N-oxides, acyl chlorides, and cyclic ethers is described. Treatment of an electron-deficient pyridine N-oxide with an acyl chloride in the presence of a cyclic ether at 25-50 °C leads to a substituted pyridine as a single regioisomer in up to 58% isolated yield. Isotopic-labeling experiments and substrate scope support the reaction proceeding through a carbene intermediate.

Concepts: Ether, Functional groups, Acetyl chloride, Hydrogen chloride, Epoxide


Chlorine (Cl2) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) are heavily utilized industrial chemicals that present significant respiratory health risks. The metal-organic framework UiO-66-NH2 has shown an unprecedented ability in powder form to remove chlorine gas. Here, we engineered UiO-66-NH2 into 20×40 mesh granules and evaluated their ability to remove chlorine and hydrogen chloride gas challenges. The exposed materials were characterized with nitrogen isotherms, powder X-ray diffraction, and attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Breakthrough results revealed that UiO-66-NH2 sorption of chlorine and hydrogen chloride met or exceeded sorption of state-of-the-art metal-impregnated activated carbon materials on a mass and volume basis in engineered form.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Hydrogen, Chlorine, Chloride, Fourier transform spectroscopy, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid, Leblanc process


The present study focuses on pretreatment of enhancing the properties of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) via low-temperature microwave irradiation. These improved properties include lower chlorine content, a more porous surface structure and better combustion characteristics. In this study, low-temperature microwave irradiation was carried out in a modified microwave apparatus and the range of temperature was set to be 220-300℃. We found that the microwave absorbability of RDF was enhanced after being partly carbonized. Moreover, with the increasing of the final temperature, the organochlorine removal ratio was greatly increased to 80% and the content of chlorine was dramatically decreased to an extremely low level. It was also interesting to find that the chlorine of RDF was mainly released as HCl rather than organic chloride volatiles. The finding is just the same as the polyvinyl chloride pyrolysis process. In addition, pores and channels emerged during the modifying operation and the modified RDF has better combustibility and combustion stability than traditional RDF. This work revealed that low-temperature modification of RDF via microwave irradiation is significant for enhancing the quality of RDF and avoiding HCl erosion of equipment substantially.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Chlorine, Chloride, Combustion, Hydrogen chloride, Pyrolysis, Hydrochloric acid, Vinyl chloride


Additive manufacturing techniques such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) allow carefully controlled production of complex porous structures such as scaffolds. These advanced structures can offer many interesting advantages over conventionally produced products in terms of biological response and patient specific design. The surface finish of AM parts is often poor because of the layer wise nature of the process and adhering particles. Loosening of these particles after implantation should be avoided, as this could put the patient’s health at risk. In this study the use of hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixtures for surface treatment of cobalt-chromium F75 scaffolds produced by SLM is investigated. A 27% HCl and 8% H2O2 etchant proved effective in removing adhering particles while retaining the quasi-static and fatigue performance of the scaffolds.

Concepts: Oxygen, Hydrogen, Hydrogen peroxide, Chlorine, Manufacturing, Hydrogen chloride, Etching, Hydrochloric acid


In June 2015, personnel from California’s Contra Costa Health Services Environmental Health and Hazardous Materials (hazmat) divisions were alerted to a possible chemical release at a swimming pool in an outdoor municipal water park. Approximately 50 bathers were in the pool when symptoms began; 34 (68%) experienced vomiting, coughing, or eye irritation. Among these persons, 17 (50%) were treated at the scene by Contra Costa’s Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and released, and 17 (50%) were transported to local emergency departments; five patients also were evaluated later at an emergency department or by a primary medical provider. Environmental staff members determined that a chemical controller malfunction had allowed sodium hypochlorite and muriatic acid (hydrochloric acid) solutions to be injected into the main pool recirculation line while the recirculation pump was off; when the main recirculation pump was restarted, toxic chlorine gas (generated by the reaction of concentrated sodium hypochlorite and muriatic acid) was released into the pool. A review of 2008-2015 California pesticide exposure records identified eight additional such instances of toxic chlorine gas releases at public aquatic venues caused by equipment failure or human error that sickened 156 persons. Chemical exposures at public aquatic venues can be prevented by proper handling, storage, and monitoring of pool chemicals; appropriate equipment operation and maintenance; training of pool operators and staff members on pool chemical safety; and reporting of chemical exposures.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Sodium chloride, Chlorine, Hypochlorous acid, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid, Swimming pool, Sodium carbonate


A controlled field study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of transgenic poplars for phytoremediation in a field setting. Three hydraulically contained test beds were planted with twelve transgenic poplars, twelve wild type (WT) poplars, or left unplanted, and dosed with equivalent amounts of trichloroethylene (TCE). Degradation of TCE was enhanced in the transgenic tree bed, but not to the extent of the enhanced removal observed in laboratory studies. Total chlorinated ethene removal was 87% in the CYP2E1 bed, 85% in the WT bed, and 34% in the unplanted bed in 2012. Evapotranspiration of TCE from transgenic leaves was reduced by 80% and diffusion of TCE from transgenic stems was reduced by 90% compared to WT. Cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride levels were reduced in the transgenic tree bed. Chloride ion accumulated in the planted beds corresponding to the TCE loss, suggesting that contaminant dehalogenation was the primary loss fate. Modeling of TCE in the plant indicated that the enhanced rate of metabolism in CYPE1 roots was insufficient to substantially increase uptake of TCE in a field setting.

Concepts: Metabolism, Cytochrome P450, Ion, Chlorine, Chloride, CYP2E1, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid