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Concept: Hydrogen chloride


Both nitrate and pentachlorophenol (PCP) are familiar pollutants in aqueous environment. This research is focused on the simultaneous removal of nitrate and PCP from simulated contaminated groundwater using a laboratory-scale denitrification reactor packed with corncob as both carbon source and biofilm support. The reactor could be started up readily, and the removal efficiencies of nitrate and PCP reached up to approximately 98 % and 40-45 % when their initial concentrations were 50 mg N/L and 5 mg/L, respectively, after 15-day continuous operation at 10 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 25 °C. Approximately 91 % of PCP removal efficiency was achieved, with 2.47 mg/L of chloride ion release at 24 h of HRT. Eighty-two percent of chlorine in PCP removed was ionized. The productions of 3-chlorophenol and phenol and chloride ion release indicate that the reductive dechlorination reaction is a major degradation pathway of PCP under the experimental conditions.

Concepts: Concentration, Chemistry, Water pollution, Sodium chloride, Ion, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride


Substituted salicylaldehydes are converted to fused tetracyclic isoxazoles through a synthetic sequence incorporating substitution of 2-bromo-2-cyclohexen-1-ol, formation of an oxime function, conversion to an oximoyl chloride, intramolecular [3 + 2] cycloaddition, and elimination of an equivalent of hydrogen bromide using silver(I) carbonate. Six examples of this sequence are presented.

Concepts: Nucleophilic substitution, Organic reaction, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Bromine, Bromides


The ex vivo instability of bilobalide containing three γ-lactone rings has been paid less attention by researchers who developed bioanalytical methods for bilobalide. In the present study, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of bilobalide in rat plasma was developed with special consideration of ex vivo bilobalide stability. Several important factors affecting the stability of bilobalide in sampling and handling procedures were investigated. To prevent the ex vivo degradation of bilobalide, EDTA instead of heparin was used as an anticoagulant as well as an esterase inhibitor for blood collection and the separation of plasma was performed at 4 °C. 20 μL of plasma sample was acidified with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid, and then extracted with ethyl ether-methylene chloride (2:1, v/v). The extract was chromatographed on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 μm) column using acetonitrile-10mM ammonium acetate-formic acid (90:10:0.4, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The analyte and the internal standard (ginkgolide B) were detected by selected reaction monitoring mode via negative electrospray ionization. The method was fully validated and proved to be linear over a concentration range of 5.0-5000 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 5.2% and the accuracy was within 92.5-101%. The extraction recoveries ranged from 80.7% to 86.7%. The proposed method was successfully applied to a preclinical pharmacokinetic study of bilobalide in rats after intragastric administration of a single dose of bilobalide at 7, 14 and 28 mg/kg.

Concepts: Blood, Hydrogen, Analytical chemistry, PH, Chlorine, Instability, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


The 1:1 Hydrogen-bonded complex of fluoroform (CHF3) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) was studied using matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy and ab initio computations. Using B3LYP and MP2 levels of theory with 6-311++G (d,p) and aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets, the structures of the complexes and the energies were computed. For the 1:1 CHF3-HCl complexes ab initio computations showed two minima, one cyclic and another acyclic. The cyclic complex is found to have C-H…Cl and C-F…H interactions, where CHF3 and HCl sub-molecules act as proton donor and proton acceptor respectively. The second minimum corresponded to an acyclic complex stabilized only by the C-F…H interaction, in which CHF3 is the proton acceptor. Experimentally, we could trap the 1:1 CHF3-HCl cyclic complex in an argon matrix, where a blue-shift in the C-H stretching mode of the CHF3 sub-molecule was observed. To understand the nature of interactions, Atoms in Molecules (AIM) and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis were carried to unravel the reasons for blue-shifting of the C-H stretching frequency in these complexes.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Hydrogen, Proton, Chemistry, Atom, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


Care should be exercised when using CH2 Cl2 as a solvent for reactions in which amines are a reagent, since undesirable deactivation of cationic copper(I) and gold(I) catalysts to form the corresponding inactive neutral chloride complexes [LMCl] (M=Cu or Au) can occur as a result of the generation of hydrogen chloride in the medium. Cu(I) and Au(I) deactivation has been proved for the Mannich three-component coupling reaction. A series of Cu(I) and Au(I) complexes with potential mechanistic implications were isolated and characterized by X-ray crystallography.

Concepts: X-ray, Chemical reaction, Hydrogen, X-ray crystallography, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


A pyridine containing amino acid based gelator forms gel in aqueous media in the presence of hydrochloric acid and the chloride ion is found to be very selective for gelation. The gelator is successfully applied for the detection and trapping of hydrogen chloride gas and this indicates its probable application for removing hazardous HCl gas from the environment.

Concepts: Ammonia, Hydrogen, Sodium chloride, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid, Chlorides


Acute lung injury (ALI) is the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Extracellular histones have recently been recognized to be pivotal inflammatory mediators. Heparin and its derivatives can bind histones through electrostatic interaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate 1) the role of extracellular histones in the pathogenesis of ALI caused by acid aspiration and 2) whether N-acetyl-heparin (NAH) provides more protection than heparin against histones at the high dose. ALI was induced in mice via intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid (HCl). Lethality rate, blood gas, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lung edema and pathological changes were used to evaluate the degree of ALI. Heparin/NAH was administered intraperitoneally, twice a day, for 3 days or until death. Acid aspiration caused an obvious increase in extracellular histones. A significant correlation existed between the concentration of HCl aspirated and the circulating histones. Heparin/NAH (10 mg/kg) improved the lethality rate, blood gas, MPO activity, lung edema and pathological score. At a dose of 20 mg/kg, NAH still provided protection, however heparin tended to aggravate the injury due to hemorrhagic complications. The specific interaction between heparin and histones was verified by the binding assay. In summary, high levels of extracellular histones can be pathogenic in ALI caused by acid aspiration. By neutralizing extracellular histones, heparin/NAH can offer similar protection at the moderate doses. At the high dose, NAH provides better protection than heparin.

Concepts: Inflammation, Pneumonia, Hydrogen, Acid dissociation constant, PH, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


This work proposes a procedure for the determination of total selenium content in shellfish after digestion of samples in block using cold finger system and detection using atomic fluorescent spectrometry coupled hydride generation (HG AFS). The optimal conditions for HG such as effect and volume of prereduction KBr 10 % (m/v) (1.0 and 2.0 ml) and concentration of hydrochloric acid (3.0 and 6.0 mol L(-1)) were evaluated. The best results were obtained using 3 mL of HCl (6 mol L(-1)) and 1 mL of KBr 10 % (m/v), followed by 30 min of prereduction for the volume of 1 mL of the digested sample. The precision and accuracy were assessed by the analysis of the Certified Reference Material NIST 1566b. Under the optimized conditions, the detection and quantification limits were 6.06 and 21.21 μg kg(-1), respectively. The developed method was applied to samples of shellfish (oysters, clams, and mussels) collected at Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil. Selenium concentrations ranged from 0.23 ± 0.02 to 3.70 ± 0.27 mg kg(-1) for Mytella guyanensis and Anomalocardia brasiliana, respectively. The developed method proved to be accurate, precise, cheap, fast, and could be used for monitoring Se in shellfish samples.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Accuracy and precision, Chlorine, Selenium, Mussel, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid, Clam


Tests of horizontally restrained rocket motors at the ATK facility in Promontory, Utah, USA result in the deposition of an estimated 1.5millionkg of entrained soil and combustion products (mainly aluminum oxide, gaseous hydrogen chloride and water) on the surrounding area. The deposition is referred to as test fire soil (TFS). Farmers observing TFS deposited on their crops expressed concerns regarding the impact of this material. To address these concerns, we exposed corn and alfalfa to TFS collected during a September 2009 test. The impact was evaluated by comparing the growth and tissue composition of controls relative to the treatments. Exposure to TFS, containing elevated levels of chloride (1000 times) and aluminum (2 times) relative to native soils, affected the germination, growth and tissue concentrations of various elements, depending on the type and level of exposure. Germination was inhibited by high concentrations of TFS in soil, but the impact was reduced if the TFS was pre-leached with water. Biomass production was reduced in the TFS amended soils and corn grown in TFS amended soils did not develop kernels. Chloride concentrations in corn and alfalfa grown in TFS amended soils were two orders of magnitude greater than controls. TFS exposed plants contained higher concentrations of several cations, although the concentrations were well below livestock feed recommendations. Foliar applications of TFS had no impact on biomass, but some differences in the elemental composition of leaves relative to controls were observed. Washing the TFS off the leaves lessened the impact. Results indicate that the TFS deposition could have an effect, depending on the amount and growth stage of the crops, but the impact could be mitigated with rainfall or the application of additional irrigation water. The high level of chloride associated with the TFS is the main cause of the observed impacts.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Aluminium, Ion, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride


The synthesis of the title compounds was carried out by reacting dicarboxylic acid chlorides with oximes in the presence of excess triethylamine. Disubstituted malonyl chlorides gave 2-alkenyl-4,4-dialkyl-3,5-isoxazolidinediones (8a-f) and 2,2'-ethylidene-bis[4,4-didialkyl-3,5-isoxazolidinedione]s (9a-f). Compounds 9 were formed from 8 and its N-unsubstituted 3,5-isoxazolidinedione decomposition product. Phthaloyl chlorides reacted with acetone oxime to yield 3-(1-methylethenyl)-1H-2,3-benzoxazine-1,4(3H)-diones (16a-e). Products 16 spontaneously decomposed to give N-unsubstituted 1H-2,3-benzoxazine-1,4(3H)-diones (17a-e) at rates that were dependent on temperature and solvent. Kinetic studies showed that two of the compounds decomposed by zero-order kinetics under neutral conditions. Butanedioyl chloride did not produce a cyclic product.

Concepts: Oxygen, Chemical reaction, Ethanol, Chlorine, Reagent, Kinetics, Hydrogen chloride, Dicarboxylic acid