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Concept: Hydrogen chloride


Both nitrate and pentachlorophenol (PCP) are familiar pollutants in aqueous environment. This research is focused on the simultaneous removal of nitrate and PCP from simulated contaminated groundwater using a laboratory-scale denitrification reactor packed with corncob as both carbon source and biofilm support. The reactor could be started up readily, and the removal efficiencies of nitrate and PCP reached up to approximately 98 % and 40-45 % when their initial concentrations were 50 mg N/L and 5 mg/L, respectively, after 15-day continuous operation at 10 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 25 °C. Approximately 91 % of PCP removal efficiency was achieved, with 2.47 mg/L of chloride ion release at 24 h of HRT. Eighty-two percent of chlorine in PCP removed was ionized. The productions of 3-chlorophenol and phenol and chloride ion release indicate that the reductive dechlorination reaction is a major degradation pathway of PCP under the experimental conditions.

Concepts: Concentration, Chemistry, Water pollution, Sodium chloride, Ion, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride


SUMMARY Resin-based materials that show promising effects for preventing the progression of erosion have been studied. This in vitro study evaluated the effects of applying resin-based materials, including resin infiltration, on previously eroded enamel subjected to erosive challenges. The influence of enamel surface etching prior to application of the material was also studied. Bovine enamel blocks were immersed in hydrochloric acid (HCl), 0.01 M (pH 2.3), for 30 seconds in order to form a softened erosion lesion. The blocks were then randomly divided into nine groups (n=12) and treated as follows: C = control without treatment; Hel = pit & fissure resin sealant (Helioseal Clear); Adh = two-step self-etching adhesive system (Adhese); Tet = two-step conventional adhesive system (Tetric N-bond); and Inf = infiltrant (Icon). The Helno, Adhno, Tetno, and Infno groups received the same materials without (or with no) surface conditioning. The depth of the material’s penetration into softened erosion lesions was qualitatively analyzed using reflection and fluorescence confocal microscopy. After application of the materials, the blocks were immersed in HCl for two minutes; this step was followed by immersion in artificial saliva for 120 minutes four times a day for five days (erosive cycling). Both the enamel alteration and material thickness were analyzed using profilometry, and the results were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p>0.05). Images from the confocal microscopy showed minimal penetration of Adh/Adhno and deep penetration of Inf/Infno into the erosive lesions. The groups Hel, Adh, Inf, Tetno, and Infno resulted in the formation of a layer of material over the enamel, which was effective in inhibiting the progression of erosion. In conclusion, the infiltrant, with or without etching, was able to penetrate and protect the enamel against dental erosion. The other resin-based materials, except for the two-step conventional adhesive, were able to penetrate and inhibit the progression of erosive lesions only when they were applied after enamel etching.

Concepts: Hydrogen, PH, In vitro, Inhibitor, Chlorine, Xanthine oxidase inhibitor, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid


We herein report that spherical and sheetlike Ag/AgCl nanostructures could be controllably synthesized by means of chemical reactions between AgNO3 and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) surfactant. In this synthesis system, AgNO3 works as silver source, while CTAC serves not only as chlorine source but also as directing reagent for a controllable nanofabrication. We show that compared to the spherical Ag/AgCl nanostructures, the sheetlike counterparts, wherein the AgCl nanospecies are predominantly enriched with {111} facets, could exhibit superior catalytic performances towards the photodegradation of methyl orange. Interestingly, we further demonstrate that when 4-chlorophenol or phenol is used as the substrates, the sheetlike Ag/AgCl nanostructures exhibit inferior catalytic reactivity, whereas the spherical counterparts display superior catalytic performances comparatively. Our results disclose new insights on the facet-dependent catalytic performances with regard to a facet-selective but substrate-sensitive photoinduced electron-hole separation.

Concepts: Chemical reaction, Catalysis, Chemical synthesis, Chlorine, Silver, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride, Silver chloride


Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are among the most toxic chemicals and the main restriction on municipal solid waste incineration. To exert more effective control over the formation of dioxin homologues during municipal solid waste incineration, it is significant to investigate dioxin-related compounds. Despite the numerous studies about PCDD/Fs, a unified understanding regarding many problems has yet to be reached because the homologues of PCDD/Fs are excessive, the measurement of PCDD/Fs is difficult, and the formation mechanisms of PCDD/Fs are complicated. Firstly, this paper briefly introduces the different formation mechanisms of PCDD/Fs, including high temperature homogeneous reaction PCDD/Fs formation and low temperature heterogeneous reaction PCDD/Fs formation. Then the sources of PCDD/Fs including precursors (chlorophenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and residual carbon are summarized. In particular, this paper analyzes the substances that influence PCDD/Fs formation and their impact mechanisms, including different categories of chlorine (Cl2, HCl and chloride in fly ash), O2, copper, sulfur, water, and nitrogen compounds (ammonia and urea). Due to the high cost and complexity of PCDD/Fs measurement, PCDD/Fs indicators, especially chlorobenzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are summarized, to find an effective surrogate for quick, convenient and real-time monitoring of PCDD/Fs. Finally, according to the results of the current study, recommendations for further research and industrial applications prospects are proposed.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Waste management, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Waste-to-energy, Biodegradable waste


A base-promoted domino reaction of 2-acyl-1-chlorocyclopropaneformic esters with amines is described. In the presence of inorganic bases like Cs2CO3 or Mg(OEt)2, the reaction proceeded smoothly in acetonitrile to afford 2-pyrone derivatives in modest to excellent yields (up to 97%). This reaction provides a straightforward and transition metal-free protocol to construct 2-pyrone skeleton efficiently. A possible mechanistic process involving 1,2-elimination of hydrogen chloride, aza-Michael addition, ring-opening, and intramolecular lactonization was suggested to rationalize the formation of the target 2-pyrone derivatives.

Concepts: Hydrogen chloride


As the photovoltaic performance of a device is strongly influenced by the morphology of perovskite, achieving precise control over the crystal formation of organic-inorganic halide perovskites synthesized in the ambience of chloride ions has garnered much attention. Although the resulting morphology dictates the performance of the device considerably, the understanding of the role of chloride ions has been scant. To unravel this mystery, we investigated three different organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials grown from the chloride-containing precursors under different but optimized conditions. Despite the presence of chloride ions in the reaction mixture, scanning transmission electron microscopy- energy dispersive spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) reveals that the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskites formed are chloride-free. Moreover bright field transmission electron microscopy indicates that chloride ions effect the growth of the CH3NH3PbI3.

Concepts: Electron, Chemical substance, Sodium chloride, Ion, Transmission electron microscopy, Scanning electron microscope, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride


The resin infiltration technique might be used for occlusal caries lesions in order to arrest their progression. This in vitro study evaluated the influence of various modifications of the infiltration technique on the penetration abilities of the infiltrant into occlusal lesions. Extracted human molars and premolars (n = 140) with non-cavitated white spot lesions were randomly allocated to 7 groups. As control, specimens were etched with 15% hydrochloric acid (HCl) gel for 120 s and resin infiltrated for 180 s (Icon; DMG). As modification HCl gel reduced in surface tension and viscosity with and without abrasives was applied using 3 different types of brushes either to oscillate or rub the HCl gel onto the enamel surface. The median maximum lesion depth was 1,232 µm (interquartile range 882-1,513). Compared with the control procedure [23% (16/50)] a higher percentage penetration was observed if the HCl gel was mixed with a small amount of abrasives were rubbed into the fissures using a modified brush with stiff bristles that were adjusted to the fissure relief for either 120 s [100% (64/100)] or 30 s [98% (61/100); p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney test]. All other experimental treatments resulted in penetration results in-between. It can be concluded that the use of an abrasive HCl gel in conjunction with a modified brush mostly enhances resin infiltration into fissure caries lesions. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Concepts: Hydrogen, In vitro, Calcium carbonate, Chlorine, Dental caries, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid, Leblanc process


A novel method allowing simultaneous analysis of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and their precursors (phenylalanine, tyrosine, creatine, creatinine, glucose) has been developed as a robust kinetic study tool by using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A direct hydrochloric acid (HCl) extraction was applied to achieve the simultaneous extraction of all seven analytes, with the mean recoveries ranging from 60% to 120% at two concentration levels. Then, an Atlantis dC18 column selected from four different chromatographic columns was ultimately used to separate these compounds within 15 min. The limits of detection range of allseven analytes were calculated as 0.14-325.00 μg L(-1). The intra- and interday precision of the proposed method were less than 15.4 and 19.9%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to depict the kinetic profiles of PhIP, 4'-OH-PhIP, and their precursors in pork model, reducing the analysis time and cost in the kinetic study.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Chromatography, Acid dissociation constant, Chlorine, Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid, Leblanc process


Tetracyclic heterocycles that exhibit high photoluminescence quantum yields were synthesized by anellation reactions of mono-, di-, and trifunctionalized 2,3-dichloroquinoxalines. Thus, treatment of 2,3-dichloroquinoxaline with TMPLi (TMP=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidyl) allows a regioselective lithiation in position 5. Quenching with various electrophiles (iodine, (BrCl2 C)2 , allylic bromide, acid chloride, aryl iodide) leads to 5-functionalized 2,3-dichloroquinoxalines. Further functionalization in positions 6 and 8 can be achieved by using TMPLi or TMPMgCl⋅LiCl furnishing a range of new di- and tri-functionalized 2,3-dichloroquinoxalines. The chlorine atoms are readily substituted by anellation with 1,2-diphenols or 1,2-dithiophenols leading to a series of new tetracyclic compounds. These materials exhibit strong, tunable optical absorption and emission in the blue and green spectral region. The substituted O-heterocyclic compounds exhibit particularly high photoluminescence quantum yields of up to 90 %, which renders them interesting candidates for fluorescence imaging applications.

Concepts: Photon, Light, Absorption, Chlorine, Iodine, Absorption spectroscopy, Hydrogen chloride, Leading


The synthesis of triblock copolymers based on polysarcosine, poly-N-ε-t-butyloxycarbonyl-l-lysine, and poly-N-ε-t-trifluoroacetyl-l-lysine by ring-opening polymerization of the corresponding α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) is described. For the synthesis of N-ε-t-butyloxycarbonyl-l-lysine (lysine(Boc)) NCAs, an acid-free method using trimethylsilylchloride/triethylamine as hydrochloric acid (HCl) scavengers is presented. This approach enables the synthesis of lysine(Boc) NCA of high purity (melting point 138.3 °C) in high yields. For triblock copolypept(o)ides, the degree of polymerization (Xn ) of the polysarcosine block is varied between 200 and 600; poly-N-ε-t-butyloxycarbonyl-l-lysine and poly-N-ε-t-trifluoroacetyl-l-lysine blocks are designed to have a Xn in the range of 10-50. The polypeptide-polypeptoid hybrids (polypept(o)ides) can be synthesized with precise control of molecular weight, high end group integrity, and dispersities indices between 1.1 and 1.2. But more important, the use of tert-butyloxycarbonyl- and trifluoroacetyl-protecting groups allows the selective, orthogonal deprotection of both blocks, which enables further postpolymerization modification reactions in a block-selective manner. Therefore, the presented synthetic approach provides a versatile pathway to triblock copolypept(o)ides, in which functionalities can be separated in specific blocks.

Concepts: Chemical reaction, Hydrogen, Polymer, Polymer chemistry, Chemical synthesis, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid