Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Human abdomen


In patients with functional gut disorders, abdominal distension has been associated with descent of the diaphragm and protrusion of the anterior abdominal wall. We investigated mechanisms of abdominal distension in these patients.

Concepts: Abdomen, Abdominal distension, Human abdomen


Scar endometriosis is an uncommon but well-described condition. It is caused by the dissemination of endometrial tissue in the wound at the time of surgery. The deposits can involve uterine scar, abdominal musculature or subcutaneous tissue, with the latter being the most common. It usually presents as a palpable mass at the scar site with or without cyclical pain. We report three cases of scar endometriosis which presented with cyclical pain and swelling at the abdominal wall scar following uterine surgery. The patients underwent imaging which revealed abnormal findings at the scar site suggesting scar endometriosis. In the presence of strong clinical suspicion and supportive imaging, all three of them underwent local excision of the lesion. The diagnosis of endometriosis was confirmed on histopathology.

Concepts: Surgery, English-language films, Menstrual cycle, Pelvis, Endometrium, Subcutaneous tissue, Adenomyosis, Human abdomen


The Heimlich manoeuvre is a well-known intervention for the management of choking due to foreign body airway occlusion, but the evidence base for guidance on this topic is limited and guidelines differ. We measured pressures during abdominal thrusts in healthy volunteers. The angle at which thrusts were performed (upthrust vs circumferential) did not affect intrathoracic pressure. Self-administered abdominal thrusts produced similar pressures to those performed by another person. Chair thrusts, where the subject pushed their upper abdomen against a chair back, produced higher pressures than other manoeuvres. Both approaches should be included in basic life support teaching.

Concepts: Person, Subject, Abdomen, Thorax, First aid, Rocket, Human abdomen, Henry Heimlich


Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP), commonly referred to as ‘stitch’, is an ailment well known in many sporting activities. It is especially prevalent in activities that involve repetitive torso movement with the torso in an extended position, such as running and horse riding. Approximately 70 % of runners report experiencing the pain in the past year and in a single running event approximately one in five participants can be expected to suffer the condition. ETAP is a localized pain that is most common in the lateral aspects of the mid abdomen along the costal border, although it may occur in any region of the abdomen. It may also be related to shoulder tip pain, which is the referred site from tissue innervated by the phrenic nerve. ETAP tends to be sharp or stabbing when severe, and cramping, aching, or pulling when less intense. The condition is exacerbated by the postprandial state, with hypertonic beverages being particularly provocative. ETAP is most common in the young but is unrelated to sex or body type. Well trained athletes are not immune from the condition, although they may experience it less frequently. Several theories have been presented to explain the mechanism responsible for the pain, including ischemia of the diaphragm; stress on the supportive visceral ligaments that attach the abdominal organs to the diaphragm; gastrointestinal ischemia or distension; cramping of the abdominal musculature; ischemic pain resulting from compression of the celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament; aggravation of the spinal nerves; and irritation of the parietal peritoneum. Of these theories, irritation of the parietal peritoneum best explains the features of ETAP; however, further investigations are required. Strategies for managing the pain are largely anecdotal, especially given that its etiology remains to be fully elucidated. Commonly purported prevention strategies include avoiding large volumes of food and beverages for at least 2 hours prior to exercise, especially hypertonic compounds; improving posture, especially in the thoracic region; and supporting the abdominal organs by improving core strength or wearing a supportive broad belt. Techniques for gaining relief from the pain during an episode are equivocal. This article presents a contemporary understanding of ETAP, which historically has received little research attention but over the past 15 years has been more carefully studied.

Concepts: Muscle, Liver, Abdominal pain, Stomach, Abdomen, Nerve, Thorax, Human abdomen


Damage-control laparotomy (DCL) has revolutionized the surgery of injury. However, this has led to the dilemma of the nonclosable abdomen. Subsequently, there exists a subgroup of patients who after resuscitation and diuresis, remain nonclosable. Before the adoption of our open abdomen protocol (OAP) and use of transabdominal wall traction (TAWT), these patients required skin grafting and a planned ventral hernia. We hypothesize that our OAP and TAWT device, which use full abdominal wall thickness sutures to dynamically distribute midline traction, achieve an improved method of fascial reapproximation.

Concepts: Surgery, Abdominal pain, Mammal, Abdomen, Human abdomen


BACKGROUND: Although laparoscopic intra-peritoneal mesh repair (LVHR) is a well-established treatment option to repair ventral and incisional hernias, no consensus in the literature can be found on the best method of fixation of the mesh to the abdominal wall. METHODS: Between December 2004 and July 2008, 76 patients undergoing a LVHR were randomized between mesh fixation using a double row of spiral tackers (DC) (n = 33) and mesh fixation with transfascial sutures combined with one row of spiral tackers (S&T) (n = 43), in the WoW trial (with or without sutures). Patients were clinically examined and evaluated using a visual analog scale for pain (VAS) in rest and after coughing 4 h post-operatively, after 4 weeks and 3 months after surgery. Primary endpoint of the study was abdominal wall pain, defined as a VAS score of at least 1.0 cm, at 3 months post-operative. Quality of life was quantified with the SF-36 questionnaire preoperatively and after 3 months. Secondary endpoint was the recurrence rate at 24-month follow-up. RESULTS: The DC and S&T group were comparable in age, gender, ASA score, BMI, indication, hernia, and mesh variables. The DC group had a significant shorter operating time compared with the S&T group (74 vs 96 min; p = 0.014) and a significant lower mean VAS score 4 h post-operatively (in rest; p = 0.028/coughing; p = 0.013). At 3 months, there were significant more patients in the S&T group with VAS score ≥1.0 cm (31.4 vs 8.3 %; p = 0.036). Clinical follow-up at 24 months was obtained in 63 patients (82.9 %). The recurrence rate at 24 months was 7.9 % overall (5/63). There were more recurrences in the S&T group (4/36) than in the DC group (1/27), but this difference was not significant (11.1 vs 3.7 %; p = 0.381). CONCLUSION: We found that double-crown fixation of intra-peritoneal mesh during laparoscopic ventral hernia repair was quicker, was less painful immediately post-operative and after 3 months, and did not increase the recurrence rate at 24 months. In hernias at a distance from the bony borders of the abdomen, transfascial sutures can be omitted if a double crown of tackers is placed.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Surgery, Hernia, Clinical research, Abdomen, Hernias, Herniorrhaphy, Human abdomen


The position, shape, size, and depth of the umbilicus influence the overall aesthetics of the abdomen. Hence, umbilicoplasty is a common adjunct to aesthetic and reconstructive surgery of the abdominal wall. Delineation of the position and shape of the “beautiful” umbilicus can aid in the planning of abdominoplasty and lipoabdominoplasty.

Concepts: Surgery, Abdominal pain, Plastic surgery, Abdomen, Reconstructive surgery, Navel, Aesthetics, Human abdomen


Currently, autologous breast reconstruction with a free tissue transfer from the lower abdomen is considered to be a safe method that provides a stable long-term solution. The DIEP-flap and the ms-2-TRAM-flap reconstructions have helped reduce donor site morbidity. In order to assess the potential differences between these techniques, we carried out myosonographic evaluations that assessed the muscle dynamics pre- and post-operatively. In addition to investigating the properties of the rectus abdominis muscle post-operatively, this prospective study also allowed us to analyse the muscle preoperatively and to investigate the prospects for harvesting a DIEP-flap as opposed to a TRAM-flap.

Concepts: Plastic surgery, Abdomen, Breast reconstruction, Rectus abdominis muscle, Linea alba, Human abdomen, TRAM flap


Diastasis recti abdominis is a condition defined as the separation between the rectus abdominis and the linea alba, which leads to weakness in the abdominal muscles. Diastasis may be slight or severe, sometimes resulting in herniation of the abdominal viscera. Following childbirth, most women develop some extent of muscle separation in the postpartum period. However, if the diastasis recti abdominis in the postpartum period remain severe, it should be corrected to prevent concurrent abdominal hernia, strangulation or incarceration. We herein present two Korean cases of postpartum women with severe diastasis recti abdominis with abdominal hernia; it is the first report of its kind from Korea. Two women were referred to our clinic with severe abdominal bulge. Computerized tomography scan showed widening of the linea alba with abdominal hernia. The standard abdominoplasty with multiple wide longitudinal plications of the abdominal wall was performed in each patient under general anesthesia. There was no recurrence of diastasis recti abdominis or abdominal hernia during follow-up periods. The application of abdominoplasty in postpartum women with severe diastasis recti abdominis with abdominal hernia is thus considered to be an efficient management option. We hope these cases can provide a reference for the treatment of similar situations.

Concepts: Childbirth, Surgery, Postnatal, Abdomen, Abdominal cavity, Rectus abdominis muscle, Linea alba, Human abdomen


The most common paradigm in minimally invasive surgery is entry of a single trocar through separate incisions in the abdomen. However, in an effort to decrease postoperative pain and minimize scarring, alternative techniques have been described. Needlescopic surgery uses instruments that are 3 mm or less in diameter. Prior uses of needlescopic instruments have been hindered somewhat by diminished shaft strength and small end-effector size. The Percuvance™ (Teleflex, Wayne, PA) system uses a 2.9-mm shaft with interchangeable 5-mm end effectors in order to minimize abdominal wall trauma while maintaining the functionality of traditional laparoscopic instruments.

Concepts: Surgery, Minimally invasive, Abdomen, Laparoscopic surgery, Invasive, Invasiveness of surgical procedures, Human abdomen