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Concept: Hood


At the college level, the effectiveness of active-learning interventions is typically measured at the broadest scales: the achievement or retention of all students in a course. Coarse-grained measures like these cannot inform instructors about an intervention’s relative effectiveness for the different student populations in their classrooms or about the proximate factors responsible for the observed changes in student achievement. In this study, we disaggregate student data by racial/ethnic groups and first-generation status to identify whether a particular intervention-increased course structure-works better for particular populations of students. We also explore possible factors that may mediate the observed changes in student achievement. We found that a “moderate-structure” intervention increased course performance for all student populations, but worked disproportionately well for black students-halving the black-white achievement gap-and first-generation students-closing the achievement gap with continuing-generation students. We also found that students consistently reported completing the assigned readings more frequently, spending more time studying for class, and feeling an increased sense of community in the moderate-structure course. These changes imply that increased course structure improves student achievement at least partially through increasing student use of distributed learning and creating a more interdependent classroom community.

Concepts: Better, Intervention, Hood, Relative effectiveness factor, Scales, Student, Education, Classroom


Sort-seq is an effective approach for simultaneous activity measurements in a large-scale library, combining flow cytometry, deep sequencing, and statistical inference. Such assays enable the characterization of functional landscapes at unprecedented scale for a wide-reaching array of biological molecules and functionalities in vivo. Applications of sort-seq range from footprinting to establishing quantitative models of biological systems and rational design of synthetic genetic elements. Nearly as diverse are implementations of this technique, reflecting key design choices with extensive impact on the scope and accuracy the results. Yet how to make these choices remains unclear. Here we investigate the effects of alternative sort-seq designs and inference methods on the information output using mathematical formulation and simulations.

Concepts: Measurement, Design, Hood, Cell biology, Medicine, Psychometrics, Mathematics, Flow cytometry


A total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer based on an elliptical monocapillary X-ray lens (MXRL) and a parallel polycapillary X-ray lens (PPXRL) was designed. This TXRF instrument has micro focal spot, low divergence and high intensity of incident X-ray beam. The diameter of the focal spot of MXRL was 16.5 µm, and the divergence of the incident X-ray beam was 3.4 mrad. We applied this TXRF instrument to the micro analysis of a single-layer film containing Ni deposited on a Si substrate by metal vapor vacuum arc ion source.

Concepts: X-rays, English-language films, Photographic lens, Hood, Geometrical optics, Refraction, Optics, Light


One effect of the Affordable Care Act’s “Cadillac tax” (now delayed until 2020) is to undo part of the existing federal tax preference for employer-sponsored insurance. The specific features of this tax on high-cost health plans–notably, the inclusion of tax-favored savings vehicles such as health savings accounts (HSAs) in the formula for determining who is subject to the tax–are designed primarily to maximize revenue and minimize coverage disruptions, not to reduce health spending. Thus, at least initially, these savings accounts, rather than enrollee cost-sharing or other plan features, are likely to be affected most by the tax as employers act to limit their HSA contributions. Because high earners are the ones benefiting most from tax-preferred accounts, the high-cost plan tax will probably be more progressive than prior analyses have suggested, while having only a modest impact on total health spending.

Concepts: Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Effect, Hood, Maxima and minima, Calculus, Mathematical analysis, Taxation in the United States, Health savings account


A desktop fume hood installed with an innovative design of flow boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, work surface, and corners was developed and characterized for its flow and containment leakage characteristics. The geometric features of the developed desktop fume hood included a rearward offset suction slot, two side plates, two side-plate boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, a slanted surface on the leading edge of the work surface, and two small triangular plates on the upper left and right corners of the hood face. The flow characteristics were examined using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique. The containment leakages were measured by the tracer gas (sulphur hexafluoride) detection method on the hood face plane with a mannequin installed in front of the hood. The results of flow visualization showed that the smoke dispersions induced by the boundary-layer separations on the leading edges of the side plates and work surface, as well as the three-dimensional complex flows on the upper left and right corners of the hood face, were effectively alleviated by the boundary-layer separation controllers. The results of the tracer gas detection method with a mannequin standing in front of the hood showed that the leakage levels were negligibly small (≤ 0.003 ppm) at low face velocities (≥ 0.19 m/s).

Concepts: Separation, Fume hood, The Work, Flow network, Hood, Aerodynamics, Sulfur hexafluoride, Left-wing politics


The inclined air-curtain technology was applied to build an inclined air-curtain range hood. A draft generator was applied to affect the inclined air-curtain range hood in three directions: lateral (θ=0°), oblique (θ=45°), and front (θ=90°). The three suction flow rates provided by the inclined air-curtain range hood were 10.1, 10.9, and 12.6 m(3)/min. The laser-assisted flow visualization technique and the tracer-gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the range hood under the influence of a draft. The results show that the inclined air-curtain range hood has a strong ability to resist the negative effect of a front draft until the draft velocity is greater than 0.5 m/s. The oblique draft affected the containment ability of the inclined air-curtain range hood when the draft velocity was larger than 0.3 m/s. When the lateral draft effect was applied, the capture efficiency of the inclined air-curtain range hood decreased quickly in the draft velocity from 0.2 m/s to 0.3 m/s. However, the capture efficiencies of the inclined air-curtain range hood under the influence of the front draft were higher than those under the influence of the oblique draft from 0.3 m/s to 0.5 m/s.

Concepts: Flow visualization, Hood, Negative feedback, Conscription in the United States, Test method, Effect, Fluid dynamics, Affect


A 30 µm pinhole is introduced in the intermediate focus of the SIM beamline at the Swiss Light Source to improve the spot size at the second downstream focus, which is used here for liquid jet X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. The 30 µm pinhole reduces the beam dimensions from 250 (v) × 100 (h) µm to 75 × 45 µm for a vertical exit slit of 100 µm. The smaller X-ray spot results in a substantial decrease in the gas-phase contribution of the spectra from 40% down to 20% and will help to simplify the interpretation and peak assignments of future experiments.

Concepts: Photoelectric effect, Harshad number, Fluid dynamics, Hood, Spectroscopy, X-ray, Light, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy


An inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood was developed and characterized using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique and tracer-gas (sulphur hexafluoride) concentration detection method. The IAC fume hood features four innovative design elements: (i) an elongated suction slot installed at the hood roof with an offset towards the rear wall, (ii) an elongated up-blowing planar jet issued from the work surface near the hood inlet, (iii) two deflection plates installed at the left and right side walls, and (iv) a boundary-layer separation controller installed at the sash bottom. Baffles employed in conventional hoods were not used. The suction slot and the up-blowing planar jet formed a rearward-inclined push-pull air curtain. The deflection plates worked with the inclined air curtain to induce four rearward-inclined counter-rotating ‘tornados.’ The fumes generated in the hood were isolated behind the rearward-inclined air curtain, entrained by the low pressure within the vortical flows, moved up spirally, and finally exhausted through the suction slot. The risk of containment leakage due to the large recirculation vortex that usually exists behind the sash of conventional hoods was reduced by the boundary-layer separation controller. The results of the tracer-gas concentration detection method based on the EN-14175 method showed that the flow field created by the geometric configurations of the IAC hood presented characteristics of low leakage and high resistance to dynamic disturbances at low face velocities. The leakage levels measured by the static, sash movement, and walk-by tests were negligible at a face velocity of 0.26 m s(-1).

Concepts: Aerodynamics, Sulfur hexafluoride, Loki, Fluid dynamics, Controller, Vortex, Hood, Fume hood


The extensor apparatus, an aponeurosis that covers the dorsal side of each finger, transmits force from a number of musculotendons to the phalanges. Multiple tendons integrate directly into the structure at different sites and the extensor apparatus attaches to the phalanges at multiple points. Thus, prediction of the force distribution within the extensor apparatus, or hood, and the transmission to the phalanges is challenging, especially as knowledge of the underlying mechanical properties of the tissue is limited. We undertook quantification of some of these properties through material testing of cadaver specimens. We punched samples at specified locations from 19 extensor hood specimens. Material testing was performed to failure for each sample with a custom material testing device. Testing revealed significant differences in ultimate load, ultimate strain, thickness, and tangent modulus along the length of the extensor hood. Specifically, thickness, ultimate load, and ultimate strain were greater in the more proximal sections of the extensor hood, while the tangent modulus was greater in the more distal sections. The variations in mechanical properties within the hood may impact prediction of force transmission and, thus, should be considered when modeling the action of the extensor apparatus. Across the extensor hood, tangent modulus values were substantially smaller than values reported for other soft tissues, such as the Achilles tendon and knee ligaments, while ultimate strains were much greater. Thus, the tissue in the extensor apparatus seems to have greater elasticity, which should be modeled accordingly.

Concepts: Continuum mechanics, Sample, Hood, Tissues, Knee, Achilles tendon, Tendons, Tendon


We demonstrate the direct generation of a vector doughnut mode from an internal mirror He-Ne laser using the spot defect method. A circular-shaped spot defect of ∼30  μm in diameter with low reflectivity created on the inner surface of a cavity mirror by laser ablation suppressed the oscillation of a Gaussian beam resulting in the oscillation of a doughnut beam. Polarization investigation showed that the generated beam was a vector hybrid mode.

Concepts: Light, Optical cavity, Optics, Hood, Laser