Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Hazard prevention


Pressure ulcers/injuries (PrUs), a critical concern for nursing homes (NH), are responsible for chronic wounds, amputations, septic infections, and premature deaths. PrUs occur most commonly in older adults and NH residence is a risk factor for their development, with at least one of every nine U.S. NH residents experiencing a PrU and many NHs having high incidence and prevalence rates, in some instances well over 20%. PrU direct treatment costs are greater than prevention costs, making prevention-focused protocols critical. Current PrU prevention protocols recommend repositioning residents at moderate, high, and severe risk every 2 h. The advent of visco-elastic (VE) high-density foam support-surfaces over the past decade may now make it possible to extend the repositioning interval to every 3 or 4 h without increasing PrU development. The TEAM-UP (Turn Everyone And Move for Ulcer Prevention) study aims to determine: 1) whether repositioning interval can be extended for NH residents without compromising PrU incidence and 2) how changes in medical severity interact with changes in risk level and repositioning schedule to predict PrU development.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Medical statistics, Infection, Randomized controlled trial, Wound, Prevalence, Order theory, Hazard prevention


There are as many as 79 million people in the U.S. with prediabetes, and their risk of developing type 2 diabetes is four to 12 times higher than it is for people with normal glucose tolerance. Although advances in diabetes treatment are still needed, there is a critical need to implement effective strategies to stem the current and projected growth in new cases of type 2 diabetes. RCTs and translation studies have demonstrated that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed in those at high risk, through a structured lifestyle intervention that can be delivered cost effectively. In order to bring this compelling lifestyle intervention to communities across America, Congress authorized the CDC to establish and lead the National Diabetes Prevention Program. Several aspects of the etiology of type 2 diabetes suggest that strategies addressing both those at high risk and the general population are necessary to make a major impact on the diabetes epidemic.

Concepts: Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes, Glucose tolerance test, Prevention, Programming language, Hazard prevention


In older patients, acute medical illness that requires hospitalization is a sentinel event that often precipitates disability. This results in the subsequent inability to live independently and complete basic activities of daily living (ADLs). This hospitalization-associated disability occurs in approximately one-third of patients older than 70 years of age and may be triggered even when the illness that necessitated the hospitalization is successfully treated. In this article, we describe risk factors and risk stratification tools that identify older adults at highest risk of hospitalization-associated disability. We describe hospital processes that may promote hospitalization-associated disability and models of care that have been developed to prevent it. Since recognition of functional status problems is an essential prerequisite to preventing and managing disability, we also describe a pragmatic approach toward functional status assessment in the hospital focused on evaluation of ADLs, mobility, and cognition. Based on studies of acute geriatric units, we describe interventions hospitals and clinicians can consider to prevent hospitalization-associated disability in patients. Finally, we describe approaches clinicians can implement to improve the quality of life of older adults who develop hospitalization-associated disability and that of their caregivers.

Concepts: Patient, Hospital, Physician, Illness, Gerontology, Clinic, Hazard prevention, Hospitals


A hemiarch reconstruction, using deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, is the conventional approach for proximal aortic arch reconstruction, but it carries risks of neurologic events and coagulopathy. The addition of a hemiarch reconstruction to an aortic root replacement may prevent future aortic arch pathology. Outcomes of this approach at a tertiary care institution were examined to determine whether the addition of a hemiarch reconstruction to an aortic root replacement conferred any additional risk.

Concepts: Medicine, Hospital, Risk, Ascending aorta, Arteries of the thorax, Hazard prevention, Hedge, Volatility


Despite implementation of many prevention strategies, patient falls in hospitals continue to be a significant safety problem, causing nursing staff and administrators to seek innovative means to further reduce falls among hospitalized patients. This article describes the feasibility and impact of implementing centralized video monitoring on the safety of patients identified as high risk for falls, as well as implications of video monitoring in the acute care setting.

Concepts: Medical terms, Patient, Hospital, Physician, Prevention, Nurse, Acute accent, Hazard prevention


Peritonitis is one of the causes of early PD failure in newly placed peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters. Antibiotic prophylaxis has been recommended to decrease the risk of infection after PD catheter placement. In this study, we compared the efficacy of parenteral versus oral prophylactic cefuroxime axetil for preventing peritonitis after placed PD catheters.

Concepts: Dialysis, Hemodialysis, Peritoneum, Peritoneal dialysis, Catheter, Forensic engineering, Hazard prevention, Cefuroxime


Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious postoperative complication following cardiac surgery. Despite the incidence of AKI requiring temporary renal replacement therapy being low, it is nonetheless associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, preventing AKI associated with cardiac surgery can dramatically improve outcomes in these patients. The pathogenesis of AKI is multifactorial and many attempts to prevent or treat renal injury have been met with limited success. In this article, we will discuss the incidence and risk factors for cardiac surgery associated AKI, including the pathophysiology, potential biomarkers of injury, and treatment modalities.

Concepts: Renal failure, Kidney, Nephrology, Epidemiology, Medical statistics, Organ, Acute kidney injury, Hazard prevention


Pressure injury prevention is essential to patient safety in the perioperative setting. Perioperative nurses should be knowledgeable about the risk factors for pressure injury and the safety precautions that can be taken to prevent this injury from occurring. Perioperative nurses should be able to identify patients who are at high risk for developing a pressure injury. Perioperative patients are at risk for developing pressure injuries because they can experience intense or prolonged pressure during lengthy surgical procedures, may have increased pressure on bony prominences from positioning, are exposed to friction or shear during transfer to the OR bed and positioning, and often have significant comorbidities. This Back to Basics article examines the risk factors for pressure injuries in the perioperative patient population and discusses screening and prevention measures that can be implemented.

Concepts: Surgery, Injury, Prevention, Safety, Accident, Hazard prevention, Preventive medicine


Allergic and hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylaxis and asthma exacerbations may occur during air travel. Although the exact incidence of in-flight asthma and allergic emergencies is not known, we have concerns that this subject has not received the attention it warrants. There is a need to provide passengers at risk and airlines with the necessary measures to prevent and manage these emergencies. A review of the epidemiology, management and approaches to prevention of allergic and asthma emergencies during air travel is presented with the goal of increasing awareness about these important, potentially preventable medical events.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Hypersensitivity, Allergy, Atopy, Prevention, Hazard prevention


Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. Even modest weight gain increases the risk for chronic illness, yet evidence-based interventions to prevent weight gain are rare. This trial will determine if a simple low-intensity intervention can prevent weight gain in women compared to general health information.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Epidemiology, Asthma, Randomized controlled trial, Prevention, Developing country, Hazard prevention