Bacterial vaginosis is a common vaginal infection, causing an abnormal vaginal discharge and/or odour in up to 50% of sufferers. Recurrence is common following recommended treatment. There are limited data on women’s experience of bacterial vaginosis, and the impact on their self-esteem, sexual relationships and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and impact of recurrent bacterial vaginosis on women.
To explore whether work schedules and physically demanding work were associated with markers of ovarian reserve and response.
The majority of ovarian primordial follicles must be preserved in a quiescent state to allow for the regular production of gametes over the female reproductive lifespan. However, the molecular mechanism that maintains the long quiescence of primordial follicles is poorly understood. Under certain pathological conditions, the entire pool of primordial follicles matures simultaneously leading to an accelerated loss of primordial follicles and to premature ovarian failure (POF). We have previously shown that loss of Pten (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten) in mouse oocytes leads to premature activation of the entire pool of primordial follicles, subsequent follicular depletion in early adulthood, and the onset of POF. Lack of PTEN leads to increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in the oocytes. To study the functional and pathological roles of elevated mTORC1 signaling in the oocytes, we treated the Pten-mutant mice with the specific mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. When administered to Pten-deficient mice prior to the activation of the primordial follicles, rapamycin effectively prevented global follicular activation and preserved the ovarian reserve. These results provide a rationale for exploring the possible use of rapamycin as a drug for the preservation of the primordial follicle pool, and the possible prevention of POF.
Purpose: Imaging features and clinical characteristics of degenerated leiomyoma in patients referred for uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) were analyzed to assess the incidence of degenerated leiomyoma. Materials and Methods: Patients referred for UFE between 2008 and 2009 were retrospectively analyzed (n=276). Patients ranged in age from 27 to 51 years (mean 38.0 years). All patients underwent screening MRI with contrast enhancement. Medical histories and clinical symptoms were evaluated. Results: Among the 276 patients who underwent MRI, 14 (5.1%) showed degenerated leiomyomas. Symptoms were abdominal pain (n=4, 26.7%), menorrhagia (n=5, 35.7%) and bulk-related symptoms (n=5, 35.7%) and no symptoms (n=5, 35.7%). Of the 14 patients with degenerated leiomyomas, 5 (42.9%) had a history of pregnancy in the past two years. For T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), a high signal intensity (SI) of the leiomyoma was the most common finding (n=9, 64.3%) and a hyperintense rim (n=4, 28.6%) was the second most common. On T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), a low SI of the leiomyoma was found in six patients (42.9%), a high SI in four (28.6%) and a heterogeneous SI in four (28.6%) patients. Conservative management was performed in 11 (78.6%) patients, surgery in 3 (21.4%) and uterine artery embolization in one (7.1%) patient. Conclusion: The incidence of degeneration of leiomyoma in patients referred for UFE was 5.1%. Patients presented with variable clinical symptoms with or without a history of pregnancy. MR imaging showed a high SI on T1WI and various SIs on T2WI without contrast enhancement. An understanding of the degeneration of leiomyomata is essential when considering UFE.
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of prognostic factors in primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC). All cases of PFTC diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were retrieved from the files of 6 academic centers. The cases were staged according to a modification of the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology staging system proposed by Alvarado-Cabrero et al (Gynecol Oncol 1999; 72: 367-379). One hundred twenty-seven PFTC cases were identified. The mean age of the patients was 64.2 years. Stage distribution was as follows: 72 (57%), stage I; 19 (15%), stage II; 28 (22%), stage III; and 8 (6.2%), stage IV. Depth of infiltration of the tubal wall was an independent prognostic factor in stage I cases (P < .001). Carcinomas located in the fimbriated end even without invasion had a worse prognosis than did carcinomas involving the tubal portion of the organ. The presence of vascular space invasion correlated with the depth of tubal wall invasion (P = .001) and the presence of lymph node metastases (P = .003). Tumor grade significantly correlated with survival (P < .0001), but histologic type was of marginal significance and only if it was grouped as nonserous/non-clear cell vs serous/clear cell (P = .04). The depth of invasion of the tubal wall and the presence of carcinoma in the fimbriated end even without invasion are important prognostic indicators. The modified International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology staging system should be used on a routine basis in all carcinomas of the fallopian tube.
In compliance with national and international guidelines, non-pregnant women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 should be treated by cervical conization. According to the definition of the large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) operation, the lesion needs to be resected, including the transformation zone. It is well known from the literature that the cone size directly correlates with the risk of preterm delivery in the course of a future pregnancy. Thus, it would be highly desirable to keep the cone dimension as small as possible while maintaining the same level of oncological safety.
Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis is a poorly understood chronic vaginitis with an unknown etiology. Symptoms of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis include copious yellowish discharge, vulvovaginal discomfort, and dyspareunia. Cervical ectropion, the presence of glandular columnar cells on the ectocervix, has not been reported as a cause of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. Although cervical ectropion can be a normal clinical finding, it has been reported to cause leukorrhea, metrorrhagia, dyspareunia, and vulvovaginal irritation. Patients with cervical ectropion and desquamative inflammatory vaginitis are frequently misdiagnosed with candidiasis or bacterial vaginosis and repeatedly treated without resolution of symptoms. We report the case of a 34-year-old woman with a 4-year history of profuse yellowish discharge and dyspareunia. Upon presentation, her symptoms and laboratory results met the criteria for desquamative inflammatory vaginitis, but the standard treatments did not provide long-lasting relief. As a last resort, cryotherapy (cryosurgery) of her cervix was performed for treatment of her cervical ectropion, which provided complete resolution of her symptoms. Mitchell L, King M, Brillhart H, Goldstein A. Cervical Ectropion May Be a Cause of Desquamative Inflammatory Vaginitis. Sex Med 2017;X:XX-XX.
To estimate the regression, persistence, and progression of untreated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) lesions managed conservatively as well as compliance with follow-up protocols.
The vaginal microbiome influences quality of life and health. The composition of vaginal microbiota can be affected by various health behaviors, such as vaginal douching. The purpose of this study was to examine the types and prevalence of diverse vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors among participants living in Canada and to examine associations between behavioral practices and adverse gynecological health conditions.
Cervical cancer screening usually requires use of a speculum to provide a clear view of the cervix. The speculum is one potential barrier to screening due to fear of pain, discomfort and embarrassment. The aim of this paper is to present and demonstrate the feasibility of a tampon-sized inserter and the POCkeT Colposcope, a miniature pen sized-colposcope, for comfortable, speculum-free and potentially self-colposcopy.