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Concept: Gorakhpur

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Outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) have been occurring in Gorakhpur Division, Uttar Pradesh, India, for several years. In 2016, we conducted a case-control study. Our findings revealed a high proportion of AES cases with Orientia tsutsugamushi IgM and IgG, indicating that scrub typhus is a cause of AES.

Concepts: Encephalitis, Typhus, States and territories of India, Urdu, Uttar Pradesh, Scrub typhus, Orientia tsutsugamushi, Gorakhpur

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Seasonal outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) with high case fatality have been occurring in Gorakhpur division in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India, for more than three decades. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) accounted for <10% of AES cases, while the etiology of the remaining cases remained largely unknown. Investigations conducted during the 2014 and 2015 outbreaks indicated Orientia tsutsugamushi (Haruo Hayashi 1920) (Norio Ogata 1929) Tamura et al. 1995 (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) as the etiology in about 60% of AES cases. Hospital-based surveillance studies indicated that about one-fifth of the patients with acute febrile illness were due to scrub typhus. Further studies are required to identify the etiology of about a third of AES cases that test negative for scrub typhus, JEV, or dengue.

Concepts: Greek loanwords, Rickettsiales, Rickettsia, Encephalitis, Uttar Pradesh, Scrub typhus, Orientia tsutsugamushi, Gorakhpur

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Seasonal outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) with high mortality occur every year in Gorakhpur region of Uttar Pradesh, India. Earlier studies indicated the role of scrub typhus as the important etiology of AES in the region. AES cases were hospitalized late in the course of their illness. We established surveillance for acute febrile illness (AFI) (fever ≥ 4 days duration) in peripheral health facilities in Gorakhpur district to understand the relative contribution of scrub typhus. Of the 224 patients enrolled during the 3-month period corresponding to the peak of AES cases in the region, about one-fifth had immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against Orientia tsutsugamushi. Dengue and leptospira accounted for 8% and 3% of febrile illness cases. Treating patients with AFI attending the peripheral health facilities with doxycycline could prevent development of AES and thereby reduce deaths due to AES in Gorakhpur region.

Concepts: Immune system, Malaria, Lyme disease, Encephalitis, Urdu, Scrub typhus, Orientia tsutsugamushi, Gorakhpur

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Outbreaks of AES with high fatality occur frequently in Gorakhpur division, India. Except for a small contribution (<10%) from Japanese Encephalitis, the etiology of AES has largely remained unknown. Investigations during the 2015 outbreak showed that a high proportion (62.7%) of patients had IgM antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi, indicating a possible role for scrub typhus in the etiology of AES.

Concepts: Encephalitis, Typhus, States and territories of India, Urdu, Uttar Pradesh, Scrub typhus, Gorakhpur

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In India, insurance market especially in agricultural sector is usually underdeveloped. The idea of livestock insurance emerged in India before three decades, yet, it has not operated in a significant way till date. It is well noted that livestock insurance scheme is the relevant strategy in managing different risks related to livestock farming but very little attention has been paid to address the livestock insurance needs of the dairy farmers. This study, therefore, addresses the basic question that how many people and to what extent they are willing to pay for livestock insurance and determine the main factors which influence insurance participation of dairy farmers. The data was collected from Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh in India with a sample survey of 120 cattle and buffalo farmers. For eliciting willingness to pay, a contingent valuation scenario was presented to dairy animal owners in the group of five to six. A logit discrete binary regression model was used to know the factors influencing adoption of livestock insurance. The results suggest that most of the farmers were willing to participate in cattle and buffalo insurance. The amount of premium varies across different breeds of dairy animals. The low level of education of many dairy farmers have negatively influenced the decision to purchase livestock insurance. Farmers having more experience in rearing dairy animals are more likely to be willing to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance.

Concepts: Agriculture, Risk, Milk, Cattle, Meat, Livestock, Madhya Pradesh, Gorakhpur