SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Forth

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Considering that epidemiological studies show that suicide rates in many countries are highest in the spring when vitamin D status is lowest, and that low vitamin D status can affect brain function, we sought to evaluate if a low level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] could be a predisposing factor for suicide.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Epidemiology, Sociology, Vitamins, Case-control study, The Spring, Forth

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The purpose of this study is to evaluate radiologists' performance in detecting actionable nodules on chest CT when aided by a pulmonary vessel image-suppressed function and a computer-aided detection (CADe) system.

Concepts: Lung, Function, Heart, Solitary pulmonary nodule, Forth

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Many real world complex systems such as critical infrastructure networks are embedded in space and their components may depend on one another to function. They are also susceptible to geographically localized damage caused by malicious attacks or natural disasters. Here, we study a general model of spatially embedded networks with dependencies under localized attacks. We develop a theoretical and numerical approach to describe and predict the effects of localized attacks on spatially embedded systems with dependencies. Surprisingly, we find that a localized attack can cause substantially more damage than an equivalent random attack. Furthermore, we find that for a broad range of parameters, systems which appear stable are in fact metastable. Though robust to random failures-even of finite fraction-if subjected to a localized attack larger than a critical size which is independent of the system size (i.e., a zero fraction), a cascading failure emerges which leads to complete system collapse. Our results demonstrate the potential high risk of localized attacks on spatially embedded network systems with dependencies and may be useful for designing more resilient systems.

Concepts: Systems theory, System, Number, Failure, Complex system, Complex systems, Linux, Forth

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Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) has rapidly become an important component of the treatment of rectal cancer surgery. Cohort studies have shown feasibility concerning procedure, specimen quality and morbidity. However, concerns exist about quality of life and ano(neo)rectal function. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate quality of life in patients following TaTME for rectal cancer with anastomosis.

Concepts: Surgery, Colorectal cancer, Vector space, Programming language, Object-oriented programming, Total mesorectal excision, Forth, Imperative programming

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Female pelvic organ prolapse (POP) can severely influence sexual function. Robot-assisted surgery is increasingly used to treat POP, but studies describing its effect on sexual function are limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate sexual function after robot-assisted POP surgery.

Concepts: Biology, Surgery, Cultural studies, Prolapse, Rectal prolapse, Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis, Forth

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Voice abuse is known to be a common risk factor of voice disorders and prolonged; high-intensity phonation has been shown to damage the vocal fold epithelium. We aim to evaluate the effects of phonation on the integrity and barrier function of vocal fold epithelium using a porcine laryngeal model.

Concepts: Human voice, Larynx, Phonation, Vocal folds, Vocal range, Forth, Histology of the Vocal Folds, Whistle register

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Recently, endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage (EUS-GBD) has emerged using a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS). The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of this procedure. In addition, the efficacy and safety of EUS-GBD with SEMS were assessed.

Concepts: Bronchoscopy, Programming language, Forth

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Since Hooker, Finkelman and Schwartzman (Psychometrika 74(3): 419-442, 2009) it is known that person parameter estimates from multidimensional latent variable models can induce unfair classifications via paradoxical scoring effects. The open question as to whether there is a fair and at the same time multidimensional scoring scheme with adequate statistical properties is addressed in this paper. We develop a theorem on the existence of a fair, multidimensional classification scheme in the context of the classical linear factor analysis model and show how the computation of the scoring scheme can be embedded in the context of linear programming. The procedure is illustrated in the framework of scoring the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV).

Concepts: Statistics, Mathematics, Psychometrics, Factor analysis, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Forth, Latent variable models

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The use of sedation for diagnostic procedures including gastrointestinal endoscopy is rapidly growing. Recovery of cognitive function after sedation is important because it would be important for most patients to resume safe, normal life soon after the procedure. Computerized tests have shown being accurate descriptors of cognitive function. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the time course of cognitive function recovery after sedation with propofol and remifentanil. A prospective observational double blind clinical study conducted in 34 young healthy adults undergoing elective outpatient colonoscopy under sedation with the combination of propofol and remifentanil using a target controlled infusion system. Cognitive function was measured using a validated battery of computerized cognitive tests (Cogstate™, Melbourne, Australia) at different predefined times: prior to starting sedation (Tbaseline), and then 10 min (T10), 40 min (T40) and 120 min (T120) after the end of colonoscopy. Tests included the assessment of psychomotor function, attention, visual memory and working memory. All colonoscopies were completed (median time: 26 min) without significant adverse events. Patients received a median total dose of propofol and remifentanil of 149 mg and 98 µg, respectively. Psychomotor function and attention declined at T10 but were back to baseline values at T40 for all patients. The magnitude of psychomotor task reduction was large (d = 0.81) however 100% of patients were recovered at T40. Memory related tasks were not affected 10 min after ending sedation. Cognitive impairment in attention and psychomotor function after propofol and remifentanil sedation was significant and large and could be easily detected by computerized cognitive tests. Even though, patients were fully recovered 40 min after ending the procedure. From a cognitive recovery point of view, larger studies should be undertaken to propose adequate criteria for discharge after sedation.

Concepts: Psychology, Clinical trial, Cognitive psychology, Cognition, Memory, Cognitive neuroscience, Endoscopy, Forth