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Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Following

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Alcohol is known to facilitate memory if given after learning information in the laboratory; we aimed to investigate whether this effect can be found when alcohol is consumed in a naturalistic setting. Eighty-eight social drinkers were randomly allocated to either an alcohol self-dosing or a sober condition. The study assessed both retrograde facilitation and alcohol induced memory impairment using two independent tasks. In the retrograde task, participants learnt information in their own homes, and then consumed alcohol ad libitum. Participants then undertook an anterograde memory task of alcohol impairment when intoxicated. Both memory tasks were completed again the following day. Mean amount of alcohol consumed was 82.59 grams over the evening. For the retrograde task, as predicted, both conditions exhibited similar performance on the memory task immediately following learning (before intoxication) yet performance was better when tested the morning after encoding in the alcohol condition only. The anterograde task did not reveal significant differences in memory performance post-drinking. Units of alcohol drunk were positively correlated with the amount of retrograde facilitation the following morning. These findings demonstrate the retrograde facilitation effect in a naturalistic setting, and found it to be related to the self-administered grams of alcohol.

Concepts: Alcoholism, Following, English-language films, Learning, Facilitation, Task, Intoxication, Alcohol intoxication

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BACKGROUND: Over 50% of older adults experience chronic pain. Poorly managed pain threatens independent functioning, limits social activities and detrimentally affects emotional wellbeing. Yet, chronic pain is not fully understood from older adults' perspectives; subsequently, pain management in later life is not necessarily based on their priorities or needs. This paper reports a qualitative exploration of older adults' accounts of living with chronic pain, focusing on how they describe pain, with a view to informing approaches to its assessment. METHODS: Cognitively intact men and women aged over sixty-five who lived in the community opted into the study through responding to advertisements in the media and via contacts with groups and organisations in North-East Scotland. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed using a framework approach. RESULTS: Qualitative individual interviews and one group interview were undertaken with 23 older adults. Following analysis, the following main themes emerged: diversity in conceptualising pain using a simple numerical score; personalising the meaning of pain by way of stories, similes and metaphors; and, contextualising pain in relation to its impact on activities. CONCLUSIONS: The importance of attending to individuals' stories as a meaningful way of describing pain for older adults is highlighted, suggesting that a narrative approach, as recommended and researched in other areas of medicine, may usefully be applied in pain assessment for older adults. Along with the judicious use of numerical tools, this requires innovative methods to elicit verbal accounts, such as using similes and metaphors to help older adults describe and discuss their experience, and contextualising the effects of pain on activities that are important to them.

Concepts: Research methods, Following, Educational psychology, Pain, Meaning of life, Quantitative research, Suffering, Simile

139

Objectives This review aimed to quantify suicide risk among agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers and study potential variations of risk within this population. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis from 1995 to 2016 using MEDLINE and following the PRISMA guidelines. A pooled effect size of suicide risk among the population of interest was calculated using meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were conducted to investigate whether effect size differed according to population or study characteristics. Meta-regression was used to identify sources of heterogeneity. Results The systematic review identified 65 studies, of which 32 were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled effect size was 1.48 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-1.68] representing an excess of suicide risk among the population of interest. Subgroup analysis showed that this effect size varied according to geographic area, with a higher effect size in Japan. The following study characteristics were found to contribute to the between-study variance: reference group, measure of effect size, and study design. Conclusions Our findings suggest an excess of suicide risk among agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers and demonstrated that this excess may be even higher for these groups in Japan. This review highlights the need for suicide prevention policies focusing on this specific population of workers. More research is also needed to better understand the underlying factors that may increase suicide risk in this population.

Concepts: Medical statistics, Systematic review, Following, Confidence interval, Normal distribution, Effect size, Meta-analysis, Gene V. Glass

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A classic thesis is that scientific achievement exhibits a “Matthew effect”: Scientists who have previously been successful are more likely to succeed again, producing increasing distinction. We investigate to what extent the Matthew effect drives the allocation of research funds. To this end, we assembled a dataset containing all review scores and funding decisions of grant proposals submitted by recent PhDs in a €2 billion granting program. Analyses of review scores reveal that early funding success introduces a growing rift, with winners just above the funding threshold accumulating more than twice as much research funding (€180,000) during the following eight years as nonwinners just below it. We find no evidence that winners' improved funding chances in subsequent competitions are due to achievements enabled by the preceding grant, which suggests that early funding itself is an asset for acquiring later funding. Surprisingly, however, the emergent funding gap is partly created by applicants, who, after failing to win one grant, apply for another grant less often.

Concepts: Scientific method, Following, Science, Research, Success, Fundraising, Funding, Matthew effect

37

Celebrities are highly influential people whose actions and decisions are watched and often emulated by wide audiences. Many celebrities have used their prominent social standing to offer medical advice or endorse health products, a trend that is expected to increase. However, the extent of the impact that celebrities have in shaping the public’s health-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and status is unclear. This systematic review seeks to answer the following questions: (1) Which health-related outcomes are influenced by celebrities? (2) How large of an impact do celebrities actually have on these health-related outcomes? (3) Under what circumstances do celebrities produce either beneficial or harmful impacts?

Concepts: Medicine, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Following, Sociology, Question, Meta-analysis, Time 100

37

The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study began more than four decades ago. Unusual at the time, it was founded as a multidisciplinary research enterprise, and was strongly supported by the Dunedin community, both professional and lay, in its early years. Seven research themes have evolved over the past 40 years focusing on mental health and neuro-cognition, cardiovascular risk, respiratory health, oral health, sexual and reproductive health, and psychosocial functioning. A seventh, more applied theme, seeks to maximise the value of the Study findings for New Zealand’s indigenous people-Māori (or tangata whenua transl people of the land). The study has published over 1200 papers and reports to date, with almost 2/3 of these being in peer-reviewed journals. Here we provide an overview of the study, its history, leadership structure, scientific approach, operational foci, and some recent examples of work that illustrate the following: (a) the value of multidisciplinary data; (b) how the study is well positioned to address contemporary issues; and © how research can simultaneously address multiple audiences-from researchers and theoreticians to policy makers and practitioners. Near-future research plans are described, and we end by reflecting upon the core aspects of the study that portend future useful contributions.

Concepts: Time, Scientific method, Future, Following, Academic publishing, Research, New Zealand, The Core

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It has been hypothesized that exercise-induced changes in metabolites and ions are crucial in the adaptation of contracting muscle. We tested this hypothesis by comparing adaptations to two different interval-training protocols (differing only in the rest duration between intervals), which provoked different perturbations in muscle metabolites and acid-base status. Prior to and immediately after training, 12 women performed the following tests: (1) a graded exercise test to determine peak oxygen uptake ( ); (2) a high-intensity exercise bout (followed 60 s later by a repeated-sprint-ability test; and (3) a repeat of the high-intensity exercise bout alone with muscle biopsies pre-exercise, immediately postexercise and after 60 s of recovery. Subjects performed 5 weeks (3 days per week) of training, with either a short (1 min; HIT-1) or a long rest period (3 min; HIT-3) between intervals; training intensity and volume were matched. Muscle [H(+)] (155 ± 15 versus 125 ± 8 nmol l(-1); P < 0.05) and muscle lactate content (84.2 ± 7.9 versus 46.9 ± 3.1 mmol (g wet weight)(-1)) were both higher after HIT-1, while muscle phosphocreatine (PCr) content (52.8 ± 8.3 versus 63.4 ± 9.8 mmol (g wet weight)(-1)) was lower. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the increases in , repeated-sprint performance or muscle Na(+),K(+)-ATPase content. Following training, both groups had a significant decrease in postexercise muscle [H(+)] and lactate content, but not postexercise ATP or PCr. Postexercise PCr resynthesis increased following both training methods. In conclusion, intense interval training results in marked improvements in muscle Na(+),K(+)-ATPase content, PCr resynthesis and . However, manipulation of the rest period during intense interval training did not affect these changes.

Concepts: Exercise, Following, English-language films, Lactic acid, High-intensity interval training, Interval training, Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, Long slow distance

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Aim and objective.  The aim of this study was to describe and gain insight into the critical incidents depicted by personal support workers (PSWs) in long-term care (LTC) related to bathing residents who have dementia. Background.  Residents with dementia in LTC often display responsive/protective behaviours during bathing. Consequently, bathing is a source of stress for PSWs who provide most of the personal care for LTC residents in Ontario, Canada. Design.  A qualitative descriptive study employing the critical incident technique (CIT) was used. Method.  Eight PSWs were interviewed and 24 incidents were collected and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results.  Findings revealed that PSWs experience the following during bathing: managing responsive/protective behaviours, working with limited resources, and dealing with communication difficulties. Participants used various strategies to respond to these challenges; however, they reported limited strategies to manage the most challenging behaviours. Conclusions.  Many of the bathing strategies described by the PSWs in this study are found in the literature about best bathing practices in dementia care. However, it is evident that further work is needed to support PSWs to manage the most difficult physical responsive/protective behaviours that occur during bathing. Implications for practice.  This study has clear implications for knowledge translation.

Concepts: Psychology, Critical thinking, Following, Management, Content analysis, Incident, Hygiene, Critical Incident Technique

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Aim The aim of this retrospective study was to examine the outcome of patients referred to a dedicated clinic for dental extractions while they were prescribed either oral or intra-venous (IV) bisphosphonates (BPs). The following parameters were assessed: mode of BP administration, indication for BP prescription, incidence of BRONJ, concomitant risk factors for development of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) and demographic details.Material and methods The clinical records of 225 patients who underwent dental extraction while receiving oral or intravenous bisphosphonates were reviewed. Their clinical outcome, specifically the development of BRONJ was determined.Results Of the 225 patients, 202 were prescribed oral and 23 IV BPs. 34.8% (8/23) of patients prescribed IV BPs developed BRONJ following dental extraction, which was a significantly (p <0.001) higher proportion than that of the oral BP group, which was 2.5% (5/202 patients). 12.3% (8/65) patients taking BPs with steroids were at a significantly increased risk of a BRONJ (p <0.003). 12.3% (7/57) males developed a BRONJ compared with 3.6% (6/168) females where p = 0.015. All of the patients who developed a BRONJ as a result of oral BP prescription had been taking this medication for three years or more.Conclusion In our patient cohort the risk of developing a BRONJ following dental extractions was greatest in those patients receiving IV BPs and those on oral BPs with concomitant steroid medication.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Hospital, Following, Developed country, Endodontic therapy, Toothache, Extraction, Dental extraction

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The negative consequences of peer victimization on psychosocial adjustment are well documented. The consequences, however, may depend on who the bullies are. In this study, we examined the consequences of same- versus other-sex victimization. The sample consisted of 4,941 Finnish adolescents (ages 14-15; 47.7% boys). We used structural equation modeling to examine both concurrent and longitudinal associations of same- and other-sex victimization with depression, negative perception of peers, and social self-esteem. Both same- and other-sex victimization were related to psychosocial adjustment. Concurrently, the victimization experiences with same-sex peers in particular were associated with generalized cognitions about peers, whereas being bullied by other-sex peers was related to adolescents' social self-esteem more strongly than victimization by same-sex peers. The longitudinal associations, in turn, showed that only being bullied by boys had carry-over effects on girls' adjustment. Other-sex victimization can have serious consequences especially on girls' psychosocial adjustment. [Supplementary material is available for this article. Go to the publisher’s online edition of the Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology for the following supplemental resource: Complementary information on model fit indices and the nested model chi-square difference tests.].

Concepts: Psychology, Following, Model, Adolescence, The Adolescents, Peer group, Structural equation modeling, Bullying