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Concept: Flapper


OBJECTIVE Despite their technical simplicity, cranioplasty procedures carry high reported morbidity rates. The authors here present the largest study to date on complications after cranioplasty, focusing specifically on the relationship between complications and timing of the operation. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed all cranioplasty cases performed at Harborview Medical Center over the past 10.75 years. In addition to relevant clinical and demographic characteristics, patient morbidity and mortality data were abstracted from the electronic medical record. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to analyze variables potentially associated with the risk of infection, hydrocephalus, seizure, hematoma, and bone flap resorption. RESULTS Over the course of 10.75 years, 754 cranioplasties were performed at a single institution. Sixty percent of the patients who underwent these cranioplasties were male, and the median follow-up overall was 233 days. The 30-day mortality rate was 0.26% (2 cases, both due to postoperative epidural hematoma). Overall, 24.6% percent of the patients experienced at least 1 complication including infection necessitating explantation of the flap (6.6%), postoperative hydrocephalus requiring a shunt (9.0%), resorption of the flap requiring synthetic cranioplasty (6.3%), seizure (4.1%), postoperative hematoma requiring evacuation (2.3%), and other (1.6%). The rate of infection was significantly higher if the cranioplasty had been performed < 14 days after the initial craniectomy (p = 0.007, Holm-Bonferroni-adjusted p = 0.028). Hydrocephalus was significantly correlated with time to cranioplasty (OR 0.92 per 10-day increase, p < 0.001) and was most common in patients whose cranioplasty had been performed < 90 days after initial craniectomy. New-onset seizure, however, only occurred in patients who had undergone their cranioplasty > 90 days after initial craniectomy. Bone flap resorption was the least likely complication for patients whose cranioplasty had been performed between 15 and 30 days after initial craniectomy. Resorption was also correlated with patient age, with a hazard ratio of 0.67 per increase of 10 years of age (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Cranioplasty performed between 15 and 30 days after initial craniectomy may minimize infection, seizure, and bone flap resorption, whereas waiting > 90 days may minimize hydrocephalus but may increase the risk of seizure.

Concepts: Mortality rate, Patient, Medical statistics, Traumatic brain injury, Electronic medical record, Iatrogenesis, Flapper, Harborview Medical Center


Performing a greater number of free flap procedures inevitably results in an increase in the number of cases that experience free flap failure. In cases that require a second free flap after the failure of the first, recipient vessel selection becomes difficult. Furthermore, recipient vessel selection can be complicated if the vessel is deep in the recipient site, or if there is an increased risk of vessel damage during the dissection. Thus, we present our experience where a subfascial vessel beneath the deep fascia was used as a recipient vessel for a second free flap in lower extremity reconstruction due to total or partial first flap failure.Between January 2010 and April 2015, 5 patients underwent second free flap reconstruction using a subfascial vessel as the recipient vessel. The flaps were anastomosed in a perforator-to-perforator manner, using the supermicrosurgery technique. We measured the sizes of the flaps, which varied from 5 × 3 to 15 × 8 cm, and the recipient subfascial vessel diameters.The mean time for the dissection of the recipient perforator was 45 minutes. All the flaps exhibited full survival, although a partial loss of the skin graft at the flap donor site was observed in 1 patient; this defect healed with conservative management.We recommend using a subfascial vessel as the recipient vessel for both first and second free flaps, especially if access to the major vessel is risky or challenging.

Concepts: Risk, Retrospective, Free flap, Fascia, Flap, Flapper


The gastrocnemius muscle flap may be considered the first choice in many cases of soft-tissue reconstruction about the knee. Limited arc of rotation and reach of the flap as well as unsightly muscle bulk are major disadvantages and were the impetus to look for a local alternative. The aim of this study is to present a consecutive series of patients with a reconstruction about the knee involving the medial sural artery perforator flap (MSAPF).

Concepts: Knee, Gastrocnemius muscle, Soleus muscle, Popliteal artery, Flapper, Sural arteries


Traumatic skin tears often occur in patients with dystrophic skin. Closing them with adhesive skin closures is useful for patients with a healthy flap, but occasionally fails to cover the entire defect. We describe a simple technique to perform mini patch grafting on the remaining raw surface without damaging healthy skin.

Concepts: American films, Flapper, Euler characteristic


To investigate blood supply features of the flap based on the plantar digital artery arch and arch branch artery, and the treatment of outcomes of reconstructed fingers by the plantar digital artery arch branch island flap.

Concepts: Blood, Heart, Blood vessel, Artery, Flapper


The nasolabial turnover flap was first described by Spear et al in 1987 for the coverage of full thickness defects of the lateral ala. It offered a single-stage repair that recreated the internal nasal lining, the external nasal valve, and the rounded contour of the ala without requiring a cartilage graft. A frequently encountered problem with the execution of Spear’s original design is elevation of the ipsilateral commissure of the adjacent lip due to its broad proximal pedicle. Here, the authors describe a fusiform-type design with a proximal, superiorly tapered apex that relies on anteriorly coursing perforators from the underlying angular artery. The authors also review the inherent advantages and disadvantages of the flap itself and the unique situation where there is a skin cancer adjacent to the donor site.

Concepts: Spanish language, Skin cancer, Crystallographic defect, Elevation, Animal anatomy, Contour line, Flapper


The original ‘candy-plug’ technique has been reported to be beneficial for the treatment of residual perfused false lumen in patients with aortic dissection. However, this technique is also associated with several problems, such as narrowing of the true lumen and damage to the flap or vessel wall. Therefore, we modified the procedure to overcome these problems. Here we report a case in which the patient was successfully treated using the modified procedure.

Concepts: Medical terms, Patient, Report, Patience, Aortic aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Aorta, Flapper


The authors describe a modified perfluoro-n-octane (PFO)-assisted autologous internal limiting membrane (ILM) transplantation technique for macular hole (MH) reintervention and present results from a series of 11 patients. The authors harvested a free ILM flap and transplanted it into the MH under a PFO bubble. The time at which PFO is injected, the extent of coverage of PFO, and the sequence of fluid-air exchange (FAE) are crucial to overcome previously described technical difficulties of relieving the flap from forceps, stabilizing the flap into the MH, and prevention of flap dislodgement during FAE. A successful U-shaped closure was observed in 10 of 11 cases (90.9%). One case (9.1%) showed flat open closure. The postoperative visual gain was statistically significant (P = .01). [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:416-420.].

Concepts: Scientific method, Statistical significance, Evaluation methods, Case, Flapper


Objective Report a modification of the “rescue flap” technique using a direct endonasal approach with a partial superior septectomy for approaching pituitary tumors developed in our institution. Design Prospective study. Setting Hospital Universitario “Dr. José Eleuterio González,” Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. Main Outcome Measures Since April 2015, we have performed 19 cases employing a direct endonasal approach with partial superior septectomy. Results and a technical note are described below. Results Nineteen patients were included in this report. Six patients presented transoperatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, so a nasoseptal rescue flap was harvested. No patients developed postoperative CSF leak in this group. Two patients were submitted to a second surgical procedure. Nasoseptal flap was harvested without complications. In both patients, the size of the flap was enough to cover the dural defect and avoid CSF leak. Conclusion Direct endonasal approach with a partial posterior septectomy allows enough exposition of the sphenoidal sinus while preserving the nasoseptal septum with the possibility of a successful rescue flap when needed.

Concepts: Pituitary adenoma, Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Anesthesia, Cerebrospinal fluid, Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak, Flapper


The Abbé-Estlander flap surgery is a cross-lip procedure that is valuable in repairing a defect on the lower lip using a full-thickness flap, consisting of the skin, muscle and mucosa, from the upper lip. As usefulness and practicality of the flap in reconstruction of lower lip surgical defects in Asian ethnicity have not been documented, the authors present a case of successful lower lip reconstruction with a staged, Abbé-Estlander lip switching flap with commissuroplasty as an illustrative example. A 71-year-old male has presented with an ulcerating lip nodule in the middle one third of the lower lip, measuring about 1.5×2 cm across its long and short axes. Wide excision of the tumor was followed by delineation of the triangular Abbé-Estlander flap from the upper lip, in which the medial hinge point of the base was chosen as the pedicle. Then, the flap elevation was carried out from the lateral commissure and then was transferred into the lower lip defect. Three weeks later, commissuroplasty was performed to correct the rounding at the new commissure. The patient is currently performing his daily activities with no apparent compromise in orbicularis oris strength or oral continence. Given the size of the primary defect and the flap-to-defect ratio of size, the degree of microstomia was acceptable. Even with other myriad of reconstructive options at surgeons' disposal, the Abbé-Estlander lip-switching flap is a reliable, and less morbid method of lower lip reconstruction for Asian surgical candidates. The authors illustrate an exemplary case in which a relatively large lower lip defect was successfully repaired using an upper lip flap of a significantly smaller size in an Asian subject of advanced age, without any remarkable long term sequelae which have traditionally been associated with the trans-oral lip switching flap technique.

Concepts: Surgery, Race, Asia, Lip, Orbicularis oris muscle, Flapper, Illustration, Lip reconstruction