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Concept: Femoral vein



Purpose: Early detection of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is critical to prevent clinical pulmonary thromboembolism. However, most conventional methods for diagnosing DVT are functionally limited and complicated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of infrared-thermal-imaging (IRTI), a novel imaging detection or screening technique, in diagnosis of DVT in animal models.Methods: DVT model of femoral veins was established in nine New Zealand rabbits. The right hind femoral vein was embolized and the contralateral one served as a nonembolized control. Measurements of IRTI, compression ultrasonography (CPUS), and angiography under ultrasonic observation (AGUO) were performed at three time points: T1 (baseline, 10 min prior to surgery), T2 (2 h after thrombin injection), and T3 (48 h postoperatively). Qualitative pseudocolor analysis and quantitative temperature analysis were performed based on mean area temperature (Tav) and mean curvilinear temperature (Tca) of the region of interest as shown in IRTI. Temperature differences (TD) in Tav (TD(Tav)) and Tca (TD(Tca)) between the DVT and control sides were computed. Comparative statistical analysis was carried out by paired t-test and repeated measure, while multiple comparisons were performed by using Greenhouse-Geisser and Bonferroni approach. Values of P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 were considered statistically significant and highly significant.Results: Modeling of DVT was successful in all rabbits, as confirmed by CPUS and AGUO and immediately detected by IRTI. IRTI qualitative analysis of pseudocolor revealed that the bilateral temperatures were apparently asymmetrical and that there were abnormally high temperature zones on the DVT side where thrombosis formed. The results of paired t-test of Tav and Tca between DVT side and control sides did not reveal statistical difference at T1 (Tav: P = 0.817; Tca: P = 0.983) yet showed statistical differences at both T2 (Tav: P = 0.023; Tca: P = 0.021) and T3 (Tav: P = 0.016; Tca: P = 0.028). Results of repeated measure and multiple comparisons of TD(Tav) and TD(Tca) were highly different and significant differences across the T2 (TD(Tav): P = 0.009; TD(Tav): P = 0.03) and T3 (TD(Tav): P = 0.015; TD(Tav): P = 0.021).Conclusions: IRTI temperature quantitative analysis may help further detection of DVT. Additionally, IRTI could serve as a novel detection and screening tool for DVT due to its convenience, rapid response, and high sensitivity.

Concepts: Scientific method, Statistics, Statistical significance, Vein, Femoral vein, Deep vein thrombosis, Deep vein, Profunda femoris vein


OBJECTIVE: Endografts represent a relatively new treatment modality for occlusive disease of the superficial femoral artery, with promising results. However, endografts may occlude collateral arteries, which may affect outcome in case of failure. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical outcome of failed endografts in patients with superficial femoral artery occlusive disease. METHODS: All patients treated with one or more polytetrafluorethylene-covered stents between November 2001 and December 2011 were prospectively included in a database. Patients with a failure of the endograft were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and hemodynamic parameters were assessed before the initial procedure and at the time of failure. Outcome of secondary procedures was analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 341 patients who were treated during the study period, 49 (14.4%) failed during follow-up. Mean (standard deviation) Rutherford category at failure did not differ from the category as scored before the initial procedure (3.1 [1.3] vs 3.3 [0.6]; P = .33). Forty-three percent of patients (n = 21) presented with the same Rutherford category as before the initial procedure, 37% (n = 18) with an improved category, and 20% (n = 10) with a deteriorated category. The ankle-brachial index was significantly lower at the time of failure (0.66 [0.19] vs 0.45 [0.19[; P <.002). Seventy-six percent of patients with a failure needed secondary surgery, of which 25% were below knee. The 1-year primary, primary-assisted, and secondary patency rates of secondary bypasses were 55.1%, 62.3%, and 77.7%, respectively. The amputation rate was 4.1% (n = 2). CONCLUSIONS: Failure of endografts is not associated with a deterioration in clinical state and is related to a low amputation rate. The hypothesis that covered stents do not affect options for secondary reconstructions could not be confirmed, as 25% of patients with a failure underwent a below-knee bypass. Secondary surgical bypasses are correlated with poor patency. The amputation rate after failure is low.

Concepts: Coronary artery bypass surgery, Femoral artery, Femoral vein, External iliac artery, Superficial iliac circumflex artery, Popliteal artery, Femoral triangle


Femoral continuous peripheral nerve blocks (CPNBs) provide effective analgesia after TKA but have been associated with quadriceps weakness and delayed ambulation. A promising alternative is adductor canal CPNB that delivers a primarily sensory blockade; however, the differential effects of these two techniques on functional outcomes after TKA are not well established.

Concepts: Femoral vein, Peripheral nervous system, Femoral nerve, Saphenous nerve, Nerve block, Adductor canal


Complex lesions within the femoro–popliteal vascular territory, amongst others, include more than 15cm long or heavily calcified occlusions of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) or total occlusions of the popliteal artery (PA). For those Type–C/–D lesions TASC–II recommendations originating from 2007 advocate bypass surgery as the therapy of choice if the patient is a suitable candidate for this. Against the background of evolving endovascular techniques which often allow recanalization of even long and calcified lesions as well as improved patency rates after endovascular treatment ofsuch complex lesions, many vascular specialists go for an endovascular–first approach for the treatment of challenging lesions, last but not least in those patients unfit for surgery or in those lacking an adequate conduit or distal target vessel segment. This review focuses on two important aspects of treating complex femoro–popliteal lesions by an endovascular approach. The first part covers techniques to pass a complex lesion with a guidewire, while the second discusses strategies to improve the outcome of the endovascular reconstruction in terms of patency and clinical success.

Concepts: Pulse, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Femoral artery, Femoral vein, Arteries of the lower limb, External iliac artery, Popliteal artery, Popliteal vein


Two cases of compartment syndrome of the lower extremities occurring during surgery for gynecological malignancies are reported. In addition to the risk from being in the lithotomy position for over 4 h, these two cases were believed to have been caused by the combined use of a disposable wound retractor and abdominal retractors to secure the operative field. This conclusion is based on the fact that an abrupt increase in partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) was observed when wound drapes and abdominal retractors were removed approximately 4 h after the start of surgery. Prolonged compression of the external iliac vein by a disposable wound retractor and abdominal retractors is believed to have induced congestion of the lower extremities, eventually resulting in compartment syndrome. To verify this, during subsequent surgeries of the same type, changes in the diameters of femoral arteries and veins when a disposable wound retractor and abdominal retractors were used were monitored using an ultrasound device, and the findings confirmed that changes in vascular diameter do occur.

Concepts: Vein, Femoral artery, Femoral vein, External iliac artery, Deep vein, Veins, Compartment syndrome, Lithotomy position


To determine the predictors of restenosis, major adverse limb events (MALEs), postoperative death (POD), and all-cause mortality after repeat endovascular treatment of superficial femoral artery (SFA) restenosis.

Concepts: Femoral artery, Femoral vein, External iliac artery, Superficial iliac circumflex artery, Femoral triangle


Iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms of the femoral artery lead to increased morbidity and mortality, especially when surgical treatment is necessary. Manual compression and thrombin injection are commonly used to occlude the pseudoaneurysms. However, in some cases these treatment options are inapplicable or unsuccessful. We introduce a novel technique to interventionally close pseudoaneurysms.

Concepts: Mortality rate, Intervention, Femoral artery, Femoral vein, External iliac artery, Superficial iliac circumflex artery, Femoral triangle, Art intervention


Excessive sedentary behaviour has serious clinical and public health implications; however, the physiological changes that accompany prolonged sitting in the child are not completely understood. Herein we examined the acute effect a prolonged period of sitting has upon superficial femoral artery function in 7-10 year old girls and the impact of interrupting prolonged sitting with exercise breaks. Superficial femoral artery endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation, total shear rate, antegrade and retrograde shear rates and oscillatory shear index, were assessed before and after two experimental conditions: a 3-hour uninterrupted period of sitting (SIT) and a 3-hour period of sitting interrupted each hour with 10 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (EX). A mixed-model analysis of variance was used to compare between condition and within condition main effects, controlling for the within-subject nature of the experiment by including random effects for participant. Superficial femoral artery endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation decreased significantly from pre- to post-SIT (mean difference 2.2% flow-mediated dilation; 95% CI = 0.60 to 2.94%, P < 0.001). This relative decline of 33% was abolished in the EX intervention. Shear rates were not significantly different within conditions. Our data demonstrate the effectiveness of short but regular exercise breaks in offsetting the detrimental effects of uninterrupted sitting in young girls. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Effect, Effectiveness, Analysis of variance, Femoral artery, Femoral vein, Sitting, Copyright, Shear rate


The field of tissue engineering has advanced the development of increasingly biocompatible materials to mimic the extracellular matrix of vascularized tissue. However, a majority of studies instead rely on a multi-day inosculation between engineered vessels and host vasculature, rather than the direct connection of engineered microvascular networks with host vasculature. We have previously demonstrated that the rapid casting of 3D printed sacrificial carbohydrate glass is an expeditious and reliable method of creating scaffolds with 3D microvessel networks. Here, we describe a new surgical technique to directly connect host femoral arteries to patterned microvessel networks. Vessel networks were connected in vivo in a rat femoral artery graft model. We utilized laser Doppler imaging to monitor hind limb ischemia for several hours after implantation and thus measured the vascular patency of implants that were anastomosed to the femoral artery. This study may provide a method to overcome the challenge of rapid oxygen and nutrient delivery to engineered vascularized tissues implanted in vivo.

Concepts: Blood, Extracellular matrix, Blood vessel, Surgery, Cardiovascular system, Femoral artery, Femoral vein, External iliac artery