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Concept: Femoral triangle

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OBJECTIVE: Endografts represent a relatively new treatment modality for occlusive disease of the superficial femoral artery, with promising results. However, endografts may occlude collateral arteries, which may affect outcome in case of failure. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical outcome of failed endografts in patients with superficial femoral artery occlusive disease. METHODS: All patients treated with one or more polytetrafluorethylene-covered stents between November 2001 and December 2011 were prospectively included in a database. Patients with a failure of the endograft were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and hemodynamic parameters were assessed before the initial procedure and at the time of failure. Outcome of secondary procedures was analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 341 patients who were treated during the study period, 49 (14.4%) failed during follow-up. Mean (standard deviation) Rutherford category at failure did not differ from the category as scored before the initial procedure (3.1 [1.3] vs 3.3 [0.6]; P = .33). Forty-three percent of patients (n = 21) presented with the same Rutherford category as before the initial procedure, 37% (n = 18) with an improved category, and 20% (n = 10) with a deteriorated category. The ankle-brachial index was significantly lower at the time of failure (0.66 [0.19] vs 0.45 [0.19[; P <.002). Seventy-six percent of patients with a failure needed secondary surgery, of which 25% were below knee. The 1-year primary, primary-assisted, and secondary patency rates of secondary bypasses were 55.1%, 62.3%, and 77.7%, respectively. The amputation rate was 4.1% (n = 2). CONCLUSIONS: Failure of endografts is not associated with a deterioration in clinical state and is related to a low amputation rate. The hypothesis that covered stents do not affect options for secondary reconstructions could not be confirmed, as 25% of patients with a failure underwent a below-knee bypass. Secondary surgical bypasses are correlated with poor patency. The amputation rate after failure is low.

Concepts: Coronary artery bypass surgery, Femoral artery, Femoral vein, External iliac artery, Superficial iliac circumflex artery, Popliteal artery, Femoral triangle

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To determine the predictors of restenosis, major adverse limb events (MALEs), postoperative death (POD), and all-cause mortality after repeat endovascular treatment of superficial femoral artery (SFA) restenosis.

Concepts: Femoral artery, Femoral vein, External iliac artery, Superficial iliac circumflex artery, Femoral triangle

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Iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms of the femoral artery lead to increased morbidity and mortality, especially when surgical treatment is necessary. Manual compression and thrombin injection are commonly used to occlude the pseudoaneurysms. However, in some cases these treatment options are inapplicable or unsuccessful. We introduce a novel technique to interventionally close pseudoaneurysms.

Concepts: Mortality rate, Intervention, Femoral artery, Femoral vein, External iliac artery, Superficial iliac circumflex artery, Femoral triangle, Art intervention

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This analysis compared the angiographic outcomes of patients treated with orbital atherectomy for calcified common femoral artery (CFA) and superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease. The ideal revascularization strategy for CFA disease is unknown. Endarterectomy has been considered the standard of care for CFA disease for over 50 years. Endovascular intervention is becoming more commonly used to revascularize the CFA given the advances in technology and the less invasive nature of the procedure. Patient demographics, lesion characteristics, and procedure data for all CONFIRM patients with at least one CFA lesion location ( n=147 patients; n=200 lesions) were compared to patients with at least one SFA lesion location ( n=1508 patients; n=2367 lesions). The primary endpoint was angiographic complication, defined as the composite of dissection, perforation, slow flow, closure, spasm, embolism, or thrombosis. The CFA group had more patients with Rutherford class 4 and shorter lesion length. The CFA group had a higher final residual stenosis, shorter total run time, and shorter total inflation time. The primary endpoint was lower in the CFA group compared with the SFA group (17% vs 24%, p=0.02), driven by a lower dissection rate (10% vs 15%, p=0.04). Plaque modification of the CFA with orbital atherectomy was safe and compared favorably with SFA disease. The need for bail-out stenting was low. A randomized trial is needed to determine the ideal treatment strategy for calcified CFA disease.

Concepts: Femoral artery, Femoral vein, External iliac artery, Superficial iliac circumflex artery, Deep vein, Femoral triangle

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The objective of this study was to assess 1-year safety, efficacy, and invasiveness outcomes of endovascular stent grafting of symptomatic long lesions (≥10 cm) in the superficial femoral artery (SFA) as a substitute for above-knee open bypass surgery.

Concepts: Coronary artery bypass surgery, Femoral artery, Femoral vein, External iliac artery, Superficial iliac circumflex artery, Femoral triangle

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The precise location of the adductor canal remains controversial among anesthesiologists. In numerous studies of the analgesic effect of the so-called adductor canal block for total knee arthroplasty, the needle insertion point has been the midpoint of the thigh, determined as the midpoint between the anterior superior iliac spine and base of patella. “Adductor canal block” may be a misnomer for an approach that is actually an injection into the femoral triangle, a “femoral triangle block.” This block probably has a different analgesic effect compared with an injection into the adductor canal. We sought to determine the exact location of the adductor canal using ultrasound and relate it to the midpoint of the thigh.

Concepts: Sartorius muscle, Femoral vein, Femoral triangle

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The aim of this study was to describe associations of the presence of lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) in the proximal superficial femoral artery (SFA) with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) event rates and systemic cardiovascular event rates.

Concepts: Femoral artery, Femoral vein, External iliac artery, Superficial iliac circumflex artery, Femoral triangle

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The last decade has witnessed a tremendous growth in the type and complexity of transcatheter cardiovascular interventions that require large-bore access. While the common femoral artery has become the main route for these interventions, sizable cohorts of patients are unsuitable for transfemoral access due to vascular disease or small vessel caliber. Percutaneous axillary access has emerged as a feasible alternative in these patients. We provide a step-by-step guide for transaxillary large-bore access and closure for patients requiring transcatheter interventions.

Concepts: Blood vessel, Femoral artery, Femoral vein, Femoral triangle

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To determine whether any strength, range of motion (ROM), or functional improvement exists in the adductor canal block (ACB) group after completion of inpatient rehabilitation and following the removal of the continuous block.

Concepts: Function, Sartorius muscle, Real number, Femoral vein, Femoral nerve, Saphenous nerve, Femoral triangle, Adductor canal