Concept: External iliac artery
Late rupture of external iliac artery pseudo-aneurysm is an uncommon complication in patients who undergo extensive gynecologic radical surgeries. A 28-year-old woman with stage IB cervical cancer underwent pelvic lymphadenectomy and extrafascial trachelectomy. Two months after surgery, massive bleeding from ruptured pseudo-aneurysm of the external iliac artery occurred. Endovascular management with covered stent placement was feasible and safe to stop bleeding.
BACKGROUND: Iliac artery atherosclerotic disease may cause intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia. It can lead to serious complications such as infection, amputation and even death. Revascularization relieves symptoms and prevents these complications. Historically, open surgical repair, in the form of endarterectomy or bypass, was used. Over the last decade, endovascular repair has become the first choice of treatment for iliac arterial occlusive disease. No definitive consensus has emerged about the best endovascular strategy and which type of stent, if any, to use. However, in more advanced disease, that is, long or multiple stenoses or occlusions, literature is most supportive of primary stenting with a balloon-expandable stent in the common iliac artery . Recently, a PTFE-covered balloon-expandable stent (Advanta V12, Atrium Medical Inc., Hudson, NH, USA) has been introduced for the iliac artery. Covering stents with PTFE has been shown to lead to less neo-intimal hyperplasia and this might lower restenosis rates [2-4]. However, only one RCT, of mediocre quality has been published on this stent in the common iliac artery [5,6]. Our hypothesis is that covered balloon-expandable stents lead to better results when compared to uncovered balloon-expandable stents. METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind, multi-center trial. The study population consists of human volunteers aged over 18 years, with symptomatic advanced atherosclerotic disease of the common iliac artery, defined as stenoses longer than 3 cm and occlusions. A total of 174 patients will be included.The control group will undergo endovascular dilatation or revascularization of the common iliac artery, followed by placement of one or more uncovered balloon-expandable stents. The study group will undergo the same treatment, however one or more PTFE-covered balloon-expandable stents will be placed. When necessary, the aorta, external iliac artery, common femoral artery, superficial femoral artery and deep femoral artery will be treated, using the standard treatment.The primary endpoint is absence of binary restenosis rate. Secondary endpoints are reocclusion rate, target-lesion revascularization rate, clinical success, procedural success, hemodynamic success, major amputation rate, complication rate and mortality rate. Main study parameters are age, gender, relevant co-morbidity, and several patient, disease and procedure-related parameters.Trial registrationDutch Trial Register, NTR3381.
To (1) compare the outcome of self-expandable stents with versus without jailed deep femoral artery (DFA) for proximal superficial femoral artery (SFA) lesions, and to (2) ascertain the fate of jailed DFA.
We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic multiple uterine fibroids with collateral aberrant right ovarian artery that originated from the right external iliac artery. We believe that this is the first reported case in the literature of this collateral uterine flow by the right ovarian artery originated from the right external iliac artery. We briefly present the details of the case and review the literature on variations of ovarian artery origin that might be encountered during UAE.
We report a case with a very rare complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Rupture of the NovaFlex balloon (Edwards transfemoral balloon catheter) occurred during the inflation of the Edwards SAPIEN valve, resulting in dissection of the right common and external iliac arteries during withdrawal of the balloon catheter. The NovaFlex balloon is a part of the Edwards NovaFlex XT transfemoral delivery system.
Purpose: To describe a bailout technique for in situ fenestration of an inadvertently covered internal iliac artery (IIA) associated with endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Technique: The procedure is demonstrated in a 76-year-old patient who underwent elective repair of a 5-cm infrarenal AAA using an Excluder endovascular graft 2 years following thoracic aortic stent-graft repair of a chronic type B aortic dissection. A completion angiogram demonstrated unintentional coverage of the left IIA. The iliac limb of the stent-graft was not able to be displaced away from the ostium, so to preserve IIA perfusion in a patient with prior thoracic aortic stent-grafting, a bailout technique was performed using an Outback re-entry device to successfully fenestrate the polytetrafluoroethylene graft material. An iCast balloon-expandable stent was placed across the fenestration creating a patent side branch to maintain patency. Six-year follow-up demonstrates a stable repair. Conclusion: In situ fenestration of a stent-graft overlying the internal iliac artery can be a useful bailout technique when other options are unsuccessful.
OBJECTIVE: Endografts represent a relatively new treatment modality for occlusive disease of the superficial femoral artery, with promising results. However, endografts may occlude collateral arteries, which may affect outcome in case of failure. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical outcome of failed endografts in patients with superficial femoral artery occlusive disease. METHODS: All patients treated with one or more polytetrafluorethylene-covered stents between November 2001 and December 2011 were prospectively included in a database. Patients with a failure of the endograft were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and hemodynamic parameters were assessed before the initial procedure and at the time of failure. Outcome of secondary procedures was analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 341 patients who were treated during the study period, 49 (14.4%) failed during follow-up. Mean (standard deviation) Rutherford category at failure did not differ from the category as scored before the initial procedure (3.1 [1.3] vs 3.3 [0.6]; P = .33). Forty-three percent of patients (n = 21) presented with the same Rutherford category as before the initial procedure, 37% (n = 18) with an improved category, and 20% (n = 10) with a deteriorated category. The ankle-brachial index was significantly lower at the time of failure (0.66 [0.19] vs 0.45 [0.19[; P <.002). Seventy-six percent of patients with a failure needed secondary surgery, of which 25% were below knee. The 1-year primary, primary-assisted, and secondary patency rates of secondary bypasses were 55.1%, 62.3%, and 77.7%, respectively. The amputation rate was 4.1% (n = 2). CONCLUSIONS: Failure of endografts is not associated with a deterioration in clinical state and is related to a low amputation rate. The hypothesis that covered stents do not affect options for secondary reconstructions could not be confirmed, as 25% of patients with a failure underwent a below-knee bypass. Secondary surgical bypasses are correlated with poor patency. The amputation rate after failure is low.
OBJECTIVE: To further characterize the vascular and ureteral anatomy relative to the mid sacral promontory, a landmark often used during sacrocolpopexy, and suggest strategies to avoid complications. STUDY DESIGN: Distances between the right ureter, aortic bifurcation, and iliac vessels to the mid sacral promontory were examined in 25 unembalmed female cadavers and 100 computed tomography (CT) studies. Data were analyzed using Pearson chi-square, unpaired Student'st test and analysis of covariance. RESULTS: The average distance between the mid sacral promontory and right ureter was 2.7 cm (range 1.6-3.8 cm) in cadavers and 2.9 cm (1.7-5.0) on CT ( P =.209). The closest cephalad vessel to the promontory was the left common iliac vein; average distance of 2.7 cm (0.95-4.75) in cadavers and 3.0 cm (1.0-6.1) on CT ( P =.289). The closest vessel to the right of the promontory was the internal iliac artery, average distance 2.5 cm (1.4-3.9) in cadavers and 2.2 cm (1.2-3.9) on CT ( P =.015). The average distance from the promontory to the aortic bifurcation was 5.3 cm (2.8-9.7) in cadavers and 6.6 (3.1-10.1) on CT ( P <.001). The average distance from the aortic bifurcation to the inferior margin of the left common iliac vein was 2.3 cm (1.2-3.9) in cadavers and 3.5 cm (1.7-5.6) on CT ( P <.001). CONCLUSIONS: The right ureter, right common iliac artery, and left common iliac vein are found within 3 cm from the mid sacral promontory. A thorough understanding of the extensive variability in vascular and ureteral anatomy relative to the mid sacral promontory should help avoid serious intraoperative complications during sacrocolpopexy.
Venous catheters provide access for hemodialysis (HD) when patients do not have functioning access device. Obstruction of jugular, femoral or even external iliac vessels further depletes options. Subclavian approach is prohibited. Catheterization of inferior vena cava requires specialized equipment and skills.
We report a case of a life-threatening internal iliac artery aneurysm rupture managed successfully with an on-table reversed flared iliac limb stentgraft and embolization. This easily off-the-shelf reproducible technique avoids using a more complex and expensive bifurcated aorto-iliac graft and could be a good solution in emergency situation where a custom graft is not available.