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Concept: Excision


Lipomas are common benign tumours of fat cells. In most cases, surgical excision is curative and simple to perform; however, such a procedure requires general anaesthesia and may be associated with delayed wound healing, seroma formation and nerve injury in deep and intramuscular tumours. The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment of subcutaneous, subfascial or intermuscular lipomas using intralesional steroid injections in dogs. Fifteen dogs presenting with lipomas were selected for treatment with ultrasound-guided intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide at a dose of 40 mg/mL. Nine subcutaneous and subfascial tumours showed a complete regression. The other lipomas decreased in diameter, achieving, in some cases, remission of discomfort and regression of lameness. Steroid injection was a relatively safe and effective treatment for lipomas in dogs; only six dogs experienced polyuria/polydipsia for about 2 weeks post-treatment.

Concepts: Wound healing, Surgery, Benign tumor, Anesthesia, Injury, Al-Andalus, Excision, Triamcinolone acetonide


An oncolytic, nonpathogenic ECHO-7 virus adapted for melanoma that has not been genetically modified (Rigvir) is approved and registered for virotherapy, an active and specific immunotherapy, in Latvia since 2004. The present retrospective study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of Rigvir in substage IB, IIA, IIB and IIC melanoma patients on time to progression and overall survival. White patients (N=79) who had undergone surgical excision of the primary melanoma tumour were included in this study. All patients were free from disease after surgery and classified into substages IB, IIA, IIB and IIC. Circulating levels of clinical chemistry parameters were recorded. Survival was analysed by Cox regression. Rigvir significantly (P<0.05) prolonged survival in substage IB-IIC melanoma patients following surgery compared with patients who were under observation (according to current guidelines). The hazard ratio for patients under observation versus treated with Rigvir was statistically significantly different: hazard ratio 6.27 for all, 4.39 for substage IIA-IIB-IIC and 6.57 for substage IIB-IIC patients. The follow-up period was not statistically different between both treatment groups. These results indicate that the patients treated with Rigvir died had a risk of death 4.39-6.57 fold lower than those under observation. In this study, there was no untoward side effect nor discontinuation of Rigvir treatment. Safety assessment of adverse events graded according to NCI CTCAE did not show any value above grade 2 in Rigvir-treated patients. In conclusion, Rigvir significantly prolongs survival in early-stage melanoma patients without any side effect.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

Concepts: Oncology, Survival analysis, Microbiology, Virus, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Excision, Creative Commons


Purpose To develop a machine learning model that allows high-risk breast lesions (HRLs) diagnosed with image-guided needle biopsy that require surgical excision to be distinguished from HRLs that are at low risk for upgrade to cancer at surgery and thus could be surveilled. Materials and Methods Consecutive patients with biopsy-proven HRLs who underwent surgery or at least 2 years of imaging follow-up from June 2006 to April 2015 were identified. A random forest machine learning model was developed to identify HRLs at low risk for upgrade to cancer. Traditional features such as age and HRL histologic results were used in the model, as were text features from the biopsy pathologic report. Results One thousand six HRLs were identified, with a cancer upgrade rate of 11.4% (115 of 1006). A machine learning random forest model was developed with 671 HRLs and tested with an independent set of 335 HRLs. Among the most important traditional features were age and HRL histologic results (eg, atypical ductal hyperplasia). An important text feature from the pathologic reports was “severely atypical.” Instead of surgical excision of all HRLs, if those categorized with the model to be at low risk for upgrade were surveilled and the remainder were excised, then 97.4% (37 of 38) of malignancies would have been diagnosed at surgery, and 30.6% (91 of 297) of surgeries of benign lesions could have been avoided. Conclusion This study provides proof of concept that a machine learning model can be applied to predict the risk of upgrade of HRLs to cancer. Use of this model could decrease unnecessary surgery by nearly one-third and could help guide clinical decision making with regard to surveillance versus surgical excision of HRLs. (©) RSNA, 2017.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Pathology, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Anesthesia, Amputation, Excision


Perineal cysts are quite frequent, almost 2% of women developing symptoms related to Bartholin or Gartner cysts. In most cases these cysts derive from embryological remnants or ectopic tissue, or form as epithelial inclusion cysts. These structures are usually asymptomatic unless they are complicated by infection. We report the sonographic and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of a large perineal cyst diagnosed during the first trimester of an uncomplicated pregnancy, followed by conservative management during pregnancy and surgical excision in the puerperium. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Childbirth, Surgery, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Antiseptic, Excision, Bartholin's cyst


To identify the benefits of ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of Morton’s neuroma as an alternative to surgical excision.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Excision, Radiofrequency ablation, Morton's neuroma, Neuroma, Morton's Restaurant Group


BACKGROUND: Diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis (DPVNS) is an uncommon proliferative disease. After only surgery, recurrence rates are high. This study presents the efficacy of combined surgical and adjuvant radiosynovectomy (RS) in the treatment of DPVNS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between September 2006 and September 2012, 15 knee joints of 15 patients (10 female and 5 male) with histopathological DPVNS diagnosis with mean age 27 ± 12 years underwent surgery. At mean 14.4 ± 18 weeks postoperatively, RS was applied using 5 mCi Y citrate colloid. Three-phase bone scintigraphy and contrast-enhanced MRI were used to evaluate residual and recurrent tumorous tissues in the joint. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 48 ± 22 months. Blood flow and blood pool images showed that 2 patients had marked, 4 had moderate, 6 had mild, and 3 had no uptake. Late static images showed 5 had marked, 10 had moderate Tc-HDP uptake in the related joint. MRI examination indicated that there was no progression in any of the patients. The disease was determined to be stable in 2, regressed in 9, and totally cured in 4 cases. Bremsstrahlung imaging indicated an even distribution of radionuclide in all the knee joints. There was no evidence of leakage of radioactivity in the total body scans. There was significant improvement in Lysholm knee scores after treatment. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant yttrium-90 radiosynovectomy after surgical excision in the treatment of DPVNS is a reliable and efficient treatment method with successful clinical results. RS treatment can be considered for cases with DPVNS.

Concepts: Medicine, Nuclear medicine, Surgery, Physician, Knee, Joint, Excision, Pigmented villonodular synovitis


PURPOSE:: To determine the efficacy and safety of argon laser photocoagulation of pinguecula by evaluating 1-year outcomes. METHODS:: Twenty-one eyes of 15 patients treated with argon laser photocoagulation (photocoagulation group) and 23 eyes of 16 patients treated with surgical excision (excision group) were retrospectively reviewed. Cosmetic outcome was evaluated by patient’s self-report on a 5-grade scale (excellent, good, acceptable, poor, and very poor), and evaluation of treatment outcome was based on objective findings of anterior segment photography and anterior segment optical coherence tomography. RESULTS:: Overall cosmetic results were excellent or good in 90.5% of laser-treated cases and 78.6% of surgically treated cases. There was no significant difference in cosmetic outcome (P = 0.15). Nineteen (90.5%) and 17 (63.9%) cases demonstrated complete removal of pingueculae after laser photocoagulation and surgical excision, respectively. The anatomic outcome was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.25). Subconjunctival hemorrhage and conjunctival scarring with an irregular surface occurred less frequently in the photocoagulation group than in the excision group [34.8% vs. 0% (P = 0.003) and 30.4% vs. 4.8% (P = 0.048), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS:: Argon laser photocoagulation is an effective and safe method for removing a pinguecula for cosmetic purposes. The method facilitates control of the extent and depth of removal and thus minimizes conjunctival defects and other complications.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Laser, Physician, Ophthalmology, Conjunctiva, Excision, Subconjunctival hemorrhage


Surgery is gold-standard for correction of Peyronie’s curvature. Grafting is preferred in advanced deviations. We present our novel surgical technique and early results of grafting with collagen fleece. Patients with stable Peyronie’s disease (PD) were included. Grafting was performed by a ready-to-use collagen fleece coated with tissue sealant (TachoSil, Nycomed, Konstanz, Germany), following partial plaque excision/incision. Results of correction were documented by artificial erection. In all, n=70 consecutive patients underwent surgery. Mean patient age was 56.4 years (range: 33-72); 88.6% of patients had dorsal deviation, 11.4% lateral or ventral deviation. Grafting after partial plaque excision was performed in 61 patients (87.1%), after plaque incision in 2 (2.9%) patients. In the former patients, mean operative time was 94.2 min (range: 65-165). Totally straightness was achieved in 83.6%. Three patients required surgical drainage because of subcutaneous haematoma formation. After mean early follow-up of 5.2 days (range: 2-15), glans sensation was normal in 56 patients (91.8%). Seven patients (10.0%) underwent Nesbit procedure alone. Grafting by collagen fleece in PD is feasible and promising. Major advantages are decreased operative times and easy application. Moreover, an additional haemostatic effect is provided. However, long-term clinical outcomes are necessary to confirm these encouraging findings.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 28 February 2013; doi:10.1038/ijir.2013.7.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Standard deviation, Erectile dysfunction, Penis, Peyronie's disease, Excision


Upper eyelid skin excess is commonly treated using a surgical excision that is then sutured, resulting in a linear scar. Deep chemical peeling of the upper eyelids using the Baker Gordon formula has been described as a nonsurgical alternative to tighten upper eyelid skin with the advantage of lessening periorbital rhytides, although prolonged healing and hypopigmentation are risks. The goal of this study was to show the benefits of a less-invasive approach to periorbital rejuvenation that combines 89% phenol peeling with small, nonlinear excisions that heal by secondary intention.

Concepts: Scar, Surgery, Eyelid, Excision


Facial palsy is a debilitating condition entailing both cosmetic and functional limitations. Static suspension procedures can be performed when more advanced dynamic techniques are not indicated. Since 2006, we have used a double-layered palmaris longus tendon graft through an ovular skin excision in the nasolabial fold for access. The aim of this paper is to present our surgical technique and case series.

Concepts: Surgery, Cosmetics, Excision, Muscle relaxant, Neurological disorders, Bell's palsy, Functional programming, Nasolabial fold