Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Equal temperament


The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 10 weeks of effort-matched short intervals (SI; n = 9) or long intervals (LI; n = 7) in cyclists. The high-intensity interval sessions (HIT) were performed twice a week interspersed with low-intensity training. There were no differences between groups at pretest. There were no differences between groups in total volume of both HIT and low-intensity training. The SI group achieved a larger relative improvement in VO2max than the LI group (8.7% ± 5.0% vs 2.6% ± 5.2%), respectively, P ≤ 0.05). Mean effect size (ES) of the relative improvement in all measured parameters, including performance measured as mean power output during 30-s all-out, 5-min all-out, and 40-min all-out tests revealed a moderate-to-large effect of SI training vs LI training (ES range was 0.86-1.54). These results suggest that the present SI protocol induces superior training adaptations on both the high-power region and lower power region of cyclists' power profile compared with the present LI protocol.

Concepts: Present, Time, Medical statistics, Statistical significance, Odds ratio, Effect size, Jacob Cohen, Equal temperament


We tested non-musicians and musicians in an auditory psychophysical experiment to assess the effects of timbre manipulation on pitch-interval discrimination. Both groups were asked to indicate the larger of two presented intervals, comprised of four sequentially presented pitches; the second or fourth stimulus within a trial was either a sinusoidal (or “pure”), flute, piano, or synthetic voice tone, while the remaining three stimuli were all pure tones. The interval-discrimination tasks were administered parametrically to assess performance across varying pitch distances between intervals (“interval-differences”). Irrespective of timbre, musicians displayed a steady improvement across interval-differences, while non-musicians only demonstrated enhanced interval discrimination at an interval-difference of 100 cents (one semitone in Western music). Surprisingly, the best discrimination performance across both groups was observed with pure-tone intervals, followed by intervals containing a piano tone. More specifically, we observed that: 1) timbre changes within a trial affect interval discrimination; and 2) the broad spectral characteristics of an instrumental timbre may influence perceived pitch or interval magnitude and make interval discrimination more difficult.

Concepts: Pitch, Music, Semitone, Interval, Timbre, Octave, Musical tuning, Equal temperament


The present study aimed to investigate the influence of subjects' strength level on both the ability to maintain power output performance and the physiological and perceived exertion responses during a power training session when different rest intervals (RI) are used. Thirty-eight (18 males and 20 females) subjects were divided into a stronger or weaker group, based on their ability to produce peak power output. Testing was performed using the same protocol (5 sets of 8 repetitions with 40% of 1 repetition maximum) in the bench press throw exercise, but differing the RI between sets (1, 2 and 3 minutes). During the sessions, mechanical (peak power), physiological ([La]) and perceptual (RPE) variables were measured. In addition delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) 24 and 48 hours after the training session were reported. Both stronger and weaker (males and females) groups showed significant impairments in mechanical, physiological, and perceptual data when resting 1 min. Nevertheless, while stronger groups were able to sustain power output over the sets when using the 2 min RI, weaker groups needed at least 3 min to maintain power output performance. Therefore, strength level heavily influences the rest interval required during a power training session and should be taken into account when prescribing such training sessions.

Concepts: Perception, Performance, Bench, Bench press, Repetition, Delayed onset muscle soreness, Equal temperament


Following a recent major review of cervical screening, from 2017 Australia will transition from two-yearly cytology-based screening to five-yearly primary HPV screening, with partial genotyping and direct referral for HPV 16/18 and LBC triage for other oncogenic types. Switching to a longer screening interval will result in transitional fluctuations for volumes of tests before a ‘steady state’ is reached for the new test volumes. This study aimed to quantify the impact of this transition on year-to-year volumes of screening and follow-up tests and procedures.

Concepts: Thermodynamics, Semitone, Equal temperament, Major and minor


Mainly because of the diversity of clinical presentations, diagnostic delays in lymphoma can be excessive. The time spent in primary care before referral to the specialist may be relatively short compared with the interval between hospital appointment and diagnosis. Although studies have examined the diagnostic intervals and referral patterns of patients with lymphoma, the time to diagnosis of outpatient compared to inpatient settings and the costs incurred are unknown.

Concepts: Semitone, Equal temperament, Major and minor


The aim of this study was to assess the effect of isolated V-Y plasty on lip lengthening and the treatment of gummy smile. An isolated V-Y plasty was performed on 14 patients with a gummy smile. In each case, measurements of upper lip length and gingival display were recorded from posed-smile photographs taken preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Gingival display decreased significantly and lip length increased significantly over all intervals investigated. Applying this technique after Le Fort I surgery may be beneficial; however, as with other injection or surgical lip lengthening methods, its stand-alone application should be questioned.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Units of measurement, Height, Equal temperament


Our ability to discriminate between pitch intervals of different sizes is not only an important aspect of speech and music perception, but also a useful means of evaluating higher-level pitch perception. The current study examined how pitch-interval discrimination was affected by the size of the intervals being compared, and by musical training. Using an adaptive procedure, pitch-interval discrimination thresholds were measured for sequentially presented pure-tone intervals with standard intervals of 1 semitone (minor second), 6 semitones (the tri-tone), and 7 semitones (perfect fifth). Listeners were classified into three groups based on musical experience: non-musicians had less than 3 years of informal musical experience, amateur musicians had at least 10 years of experience but no formal music theory training, and expert musicians had at least 12 years of experience with 1 year of formal ear training, and were either currently pursuing or had earned a Bachelor’s degree as either a music major or music minor. Consistent with previous studies, discrimination thresholds obtained from expert musicians were significantly lower than those from other listeners. Thresholds also significantly varied with the magnitude of the reference interval and were higher for conditions with a 6- or 7-semitone standard than a 1-semitone standard. These data show that interval-discrimination thresholds are strongly affected by the size of the standard interval.

Concepts: Semitone, Interval, Consonance and dissonance, Octave, Just intonation, Equal temperament, Intervals, Pythagorean tuning


New series of diarylpyrazoles 8a-f and triarylimidazoline-5-ones 11a-g were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 inhibitory activity and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. The synthesized compounds showed good selectivity for COX-2; compounds 8a, 8d, 8f, 11a, and 11c exhibited the highest COX-2 selectivity indexes (SI = 4.77-5.43) compared to the reference drug celecoxib (SI = 7.8). All compounds showed good in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, especially compounds 8a, 8f, 11c, and 11d, which also showed some similarities to the time interval pattern of celecoxib at all different time intervals (1, 3, and 6 h).

Concepts: Time, In vivo, Cyclooxygenase, In vitro, COX-2 inhibitor, International System of Units, Second, Equal temperament


Obtaining a reference interval (RI) is a challenge for any laboratory and becomes more complicated in the coagulation laboratory due to testing on samples with limited stability on reagents that are poorly standardized. Reference intervals are required to be able to evaluate results in relation to a patients' hemostatic disorder. This becomes one of the most important tasks conducted in the coagulation laboratory. However, many laboratories lack the time, finances and in many cases the expertise to conduct this study.

Concepts: Chemistry, Laboratory, Conducting, Equal temperament, Laboratories


Cardiac restitution is the ability of the heart to recover from one beat to the next. Ventricular arrhythmia vulnerability can occur when the heart does not properly adjust to sudden changes in rate or in hemodynamics leading to excessive temporal and/or spatial heterogeneity in conduction or repolarization. Restitution has historically been used to study, by invasive means, the dynamics of the relationship between action potential duration (APD) and diastolic interval (DI) in sedated subjects using various pacing protocols. Even though the analogous measures of APD and DI can be obtained using the surface ECG to acquire the respective QT and TQ intervals for ECG restitution, this methodology has not been widely adopted for a number of reasons.

Concepts: Cardiology, Heart, Cardiac arrest, Cardiac electrophysiology, Mitral valve, Sinoatrial node, Semitone, Equal temperament