SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: English people

183

Problems of quality and safety persist in health systems worldwide. We conducted a large research programme to examine culture and behaviour in the English National Health Service (NHS).

Concepts: English Canadian, Health care, English people, Healthcare, England, Health economics, Medicine, National Health Service

173

Consumption of fruit and vegetables is important for health, but is often lower than recommended and tends to be socio-economically patterned with lower consumption in more deprived groups. In 2008, the English Department of Health introduced the Change4Life convenience store programme. This aimed to increase retail access to fresh fruit and vegetables in deprived, urban areas by providing existing convenience stores with a range of support and branded point-of-sale materials and equipment.

Concepts: English people, Urban area, Shopping, Convenience, Convenience store, Retailing

170

Physical activity is associated with improved overall health in those people who survive to older ages, otherwise conceptualised as healthy ageing. Previous studies have examined the effects of mid-life physical activity on healthy ageing, but not the effects of taking up activity later in life. We examined the association between physical activity and healthy ageing over 8 years of follow-up.

Concepts: Weight loss, The Association, English people, Health, Longitudinal study, Personal life, Epidemiology, Sociology

142

The cause of adverse weekend clinical outcomes remains unknown. In 2013, the “NHS Services, Seven Days a Week” project was initiated to improve access to services across the seven-day week. Three years on, we sought to analyse the impact of such changes across the English NHS.

Concepts: Microsoft Office, English people, England, National Health Service

83

Increasing walking and cycling, and reducing motorised transport, are health and environmental priorities. This paper examines levels and trends in the use of different commute modes in England and Wales, both overall and with respect to small-area deprivation. It also investigates whether commute modal share can serve as a proxy for travel behaviour more generally.

Concepts: Welsh people, Automobile, England and Wales, English people, Scotland, Wales, United Kingdom, England

66

53

In winter 2013/14 there was widespread flooding in England. Previous studies have described an increased prevalence of psychological morbidity six months after flooding. Disruption to essential services may increase morbidity however there have been no studies examining whether those experiencing disruption but not directly flooded are affected. The National Study of Flooding and Health was established in order to investigate the longer-term impact of flooding and related disruptions on mental health and wellbeing.

Concepts: Clinical trial, England, Research methods, English people, Longitudinal study, Epidemiology

35

Leprosy, caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae or the recently discovered Mycobacterium lepromatosis, was once endemic in humans in the British Isles. Red squirrels in Great Britain (Sciurus vulgaris) have increasingly been observed with leprosy-like lesions on the head and limbs. Using genomics, histopathology, and serology, we found M. lepromatosis in squirrels from England, Ireland, and Scotland, and M. leprae in squirrels from Brownsea Island, England. Infection was detected in overtly diseased and seemingly healthy animals. Phylogenetic comparisons of British and Irish M. lepromatosis with two Mexican strains from humans show that they diverged from a common ancestor around 27,000 years ago, whereas the M. leprae strain is closest to one that circulated in Medieval England. Red squirrels are thus a reservoir for leprosy in the British Isles.

Concepts: Europe, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium, British Isles, Leprosy, Scotland, United Kingdom, English people

33

There are substantial socioeconomic inequalities in both life expectancy and healthcare use in England. In this study, we describe how these two sets of inequalities interact by estimating the social gradient in hospital costs across the life course.

Concepts: English people, Medicine, Sociology, Health, Health care, Massachusetts, England, Health insurance

30

The phenomenon of eponymous terms in forensic pathology is described in this paper. The authors analyzed representative textbooks (monographs) dealing with forensic pathology in both English and German and identified several eponymous terms. The paper aims to present to the reader the most important eponymous terms in forensic pathology. Included in the paper are the following terms: Beckwith’s Sign, Casper’s Rule, Krönlein’s Shot, Lichtenberg’s Figures, Nysten’s Law, Paltauf’s Spots, Puppe’s Rule, Sehrt’s Sign, Simon’s Sign, Sveshnikov’s Sign, Tardieu’s Spots, Wischnewski Spots, Wydler’s Sign. The spread of eponymous terms throughout various languages is mentioned. The linguistic basis of such terms as well as their advantages and disadvantages in specialist fields, and indeed in even wider circles, is discussed. The authors state that the main function of these terms is to facilitate the open flow of unambiguous information among scholars. Eponymous terms in forensic pathology are characteristic for the German speaking countries and for all countries influenced by the German school of forensic pathology. Their usage in the Anglo-Saxon world is much less widespread, meaning they do not occur very often in English monographs and textbooks.

Concepts: England, Determinant, Robert Duvall, English people, Forensic pathology, English-language films, Language, German language