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Concept: Endothelial dysfunction


Despite public awareness that tobacco secondhand smoke (SHS) is harmful, many people still assume that marijuana SHS is benign. Debates about whether smoke-free laws should include marijuana are becoming increasingly widespread as marijuana is legalized and the cannabis industry grows. Lack of evidence for marijuana SHS causing acute cardiovascular harm is frequently mistaken for evidence that it is harmless, despite chemical and physical similarity between marijuana and tobacco smoke. We investigated whether brief exposure to marijuana SHS causes acute vascular endothelial dysfunction.

Concepts: Smoking, Tobacco, Tobacco smoking, Law, Endothelium, Endothelial dysfunction, Cannabis, Smoke



A diet rich in salt is linked to an increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases and dementia, but it remains unclear how dietary salt harms the brain. We report that, in mice, excess dietary salt suppresses resting cerebral blood flow and endothelial function, leading to cognitive impairment. The effect depends on expansion of TH17 cells in the small intestine, resulting in a marked increase in plasma interleukin-17 (IL-17). Circulating IL-17, in turn, promotes endothelial dysfunction and cognitive impairment by the Rho kinase-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and reduced nitric oxide production in cerebral endothelial cells. The findings reveal a new gut-brain axis linking dietary habits to cognitive impairment through a gut-initiated adaptive immune response compromising brain function via circulating IL-17. Thus, the TH17 cell-IL-17 pathway is a putative target to counter the deleterious brain effects induced by dietary salt and other diseases associated with TH17 polarization.

Concepts: Protein, Neurology, Endothelium, Cardiovascular system, Endothelial dysfunction, Nitric oxide, Vasodilation, Nitric oxide synthase


The aim of this study is to verify the evolution and involution of experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits through the study of endothelial function, lipids and tissue lipid peroxidation, macro and microscopic quantification of aortic atherosclerosis.

Concepts: Archaea, Metabolism, Antioxidant, Sociology, Endothelium, Lipid, Endothelial dysfunction, Lipid peroxidation


OBJECTIVES: to assess the endothelial dysfunction (ED) after bare metal stents (BMS) and sirolimus eluting stents (SES) implantation in the same patient, overcoming the confounding role of individual variables. BACKGROUND: SES reduce restenosis rate compared to BMS but cause more ED. ED is a potentially unsafe phenomenon, since it is the first step in the cascade of atherosclerosis. Studies showing more pronounced ED with drug eluting stents than BMS involved different series of patients, making the comparison difficult because endothelial function (EF) is responsive to many risk factors. METHODS: we designed a prospective comparison of 6 months post-deployment EF of SES vs. BMS implanted in the same patient, but in different coronary segments. Forty-eight lesions were randomly assigned on a 1:1 allocation using block sizing of 4 according to a computer-generated sequence (SAS System, Version 9.1) basis to treatment with SES or BMS. The EF was evaluated by measuring vessel diameter variation in the stented segment, before and after selective intracoronary infusion of acetylcholine (iiAch). RESULTS: In eligible patients, the relative magnitudes of major vasoconstriction were 2.6, 2.9, 4.6, and 3.1 at 5 mm proximal and 5, 10 and 20 distal to the stent edge. Overall, a 3.5 fold major distal vasoconstriction after iiAch of SES vs. BMS was calculated. CONCLUSIONS: in the same patients, but treating different coronary segments, SES implantation induces a higher rate of vasoconstriction compared to BMS. The increased vasoconstriction after iiAch is an indicator of ED. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Cardiology, Artery, Endothelium, Endothelial dysfunction, Restenosis, Drug-eluting stent, Bare-metal stent


endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in atherosclerotic plague instability, leading to manifestation of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capability of Trimetazidine as an agent for endothelial function correction in ACS.

Concepts: Present, Atherosclerosis, Angina pectoris, Sociology, Endothelium, Endothelial dysfunction, Acute coronary syndrome, Chord


Studies conducted over the past 25 years have focussed on the role of periodontitis, an inflammatory condition of microbial aetiology that destroys the tooth-supporting tissues, as a systemic inflammatory stressor that can act as an independent risk factor of atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVSD) and adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). It has been suggested that periodontitis-associated bacteraemias and systemic dissemination of inflammatory mediators produced in the periodontal tissues may result in systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, and that bacteria of oral origin may translocate into the feto-placental unit. Epidemiological studies largely support an association between periodontitis and ASVD/APOs, independently of known confounders; indeed, periodontitis has been shown to confer statistically significantly elevated risk for clinical events associated with ASVD and APOs in multivariable adjustments. On the other hand, intervention studies demonstrate that although periodontal therapy reduces systemic inflammation and improves endothelial function, it has no positive effect on the incidence of APOs. Studies of the effects of periodontal interventions on ASVD-related clinical events are lacking. This review summarises key findings from mechanistic, association and intervention studies and attempts to reconcile the seemingly contradictory evidence that originates from different lines of investigation.

Concepts: Inflammation, Epidemiology, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Blood vessel, Artery, Endothelium, Endothelial dysfunction


The secretome, defined as a portion of proteins secreted by specific cells to the extracellular space, secures a proper microenvironmental niche not only for the donor cells, but also for the neighboring cells, thus maintaining tissue homeostasis. Communication via secretory products exists between endothelial cells and fibroblasts, and this local mechanism maintains the viability and density of each compartment. Endothelial dysfunction, apart from obvious cell-autonomous defects, leads to the aberrant secretome, which predisposes fibroblasts to acquire a myofibroblastic fibrogenic phenotype. In our recent profiling of the secretome of such dysfunctional profibrogenic renal microvascular endothelial cells, we identified unique profibrogenic signatures, among which we detected ligands of Notch and Wnt-β-catenin pathways. Here, we stress the role of reprogramming cues in the immediate microenvironment of (myo)fibroblasts and the contribution of the endothelial secretome to the panoply of instructive signals in the vicinity of fibroblasts. We hope that this brief overview of endothelial-fibroblast communication in health and disease will lead to eventual unbiased proteomic mapping of individual secretomes of glomerular and tubular epithelial cells, pericytes, and podocytes through reductionist approaches to allow for the synthetic creation of a complex network of secretomic signals acting as reprogramming factors on individual cell types in the kidney. Knowledge of profibrogenic and antifibrogenic signatures in the secretome may garner future therapeutic efforts.

Concepts: Kidney, Cell, Cell membrane, Epithelium, Endothelium, Skin, Cornea, Endothelial dysfunction


Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function.

Concepts: Disease, Diseases and disorders, Blood vessel, Endothelium, Endothelial dysfunction


Current research in behavioral cardiology reveals a significant association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and increased risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that patients with PTSD would exhibit endothelial dysfunction, a potential mechanism involved in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease.

Concepts: Endothelium, Endothelial dysfunction, Complex post-traumatic stress disorder, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Stress, United States Department of Veterans Affairs