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Concept: Egg white



Background: Protein in the diet is commonly ingested from whole foods that contain various macro- and micronutrients. However, the effect of consuming protein within its natural whole-food matrix on postprandial protein metabolism remains understudied in humans.Objective: We aimed to compare the whole-body and muscle protein metabolic responses after the consumption of whole eggs with egg whites during exercise recovery in young men.Design: In crossover trials, 10 resistance-trained men [aged 21 ± 1 y; 88 ± 3 kg; body fat: 16% ± 1% (means ± SEMs)] received primed continuous l-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and l-[1-(13)C]leucine infusions and performed a single bout of resistance exercise. After exercise, participants consumed intrinsically l-[5,5,5-(2)H3]leucine-labeled whole eggs (18 g protein, 17 g fat) or egg whites (18 g protein, 0 g fat). Repeated blood and muscle biopsy samples were collected to assess whole-body leucine kinetics, intramuscular signaling, and myofibrillar protein synthesis.Results: Plasma appearance rates of protein-derived leucine were more rapid after the consumption of egg whites than after whole eggs (P = 0.01). Total plasma availability of leucine over the 300-min postprandial period was similar (P= 0.75) between the ingestion of whole eggs (68% ± 1%) and egg whites (66% ± 2%), with no difference in whole-body net leucine balance (P = 0.27). Both whole-egg and egg white conditions increased the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 during postexercise recovery (all P < 0.05). However, whole-egg ingestion increased the postexercise myofibrillar protein synthetic response to a greater extent than did the ingestion of egg whites (P= 0.04).Conclusions: We show that the ingestion of whole eggs immediately after resistance exercise resulted in greater stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis than did the ingestion of egg whites, despite being matched for protein content in young men. Our data indicate that the ingestion of nutrient- and protein-dense foods differentially stimulates muscle anabolism compared with protein-dense foods. This trial was registered at as NCT03117127.

Concepts: Protein, Metabolism, Nutrition, Ribosome, Egg, Muscle, Protein biosynthesis, Egg white


Recombinant protein overexpression of large proteins in bacteria often results in insoluble and misfolded proteins directed to inclusion bodies. We report the application of shear stress in micrometer-wide, thin fluid films to refold boiled hen egg white lysozyme, recombinant hen egg white lysozyme, and recombinant caveolin-1. Furthermore, the approach allowed refolding of a much larger protein, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). The reported methods require only minutes, which is more than 100 times faster than conventional overnight dialysis. This rapid refolding technique could significantly shorten times, lower costs, and reduce waste streams associated with protein expression for a wide range of industrial and research applications.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Signal transduction, Enzyme, Protein folding, Escherichia coli, Biotechnology, Egg white


This paper investigates what “free-range” eggs are available for sale in supermarkets in Australia, what “free-range” means on product labelling, and what alternative “free-range” offers to cage production. The paper concludes that most of the “free-range” eggs currently available in supermarkets do not address animal welfare, environmental sustainability, and public health concerns but, rather, seek to drive down consumer expectations of what these issues mean by balancing them against commercial interests. This suits both supermarkets and egg producers because it does not challenge dominant industrial-scale egg production and the profits associated with it. A serious approach to free-range would confront these arrangements, and this means it may be impossible to truthfully label many of the “free-range” eggs currently available in the dominant supermarkets as free-range.

Concepts: Egg, Food, Chicken, Meat, Lutein, Factory farming, Egg white, Egg yolk


The former use of chlordecone (CLD) in the French West Indies has resulted in long-term pollution of soils and of food chains. CLD may be transferred into eggs of hens reared outdoors, through polluted soil ingestion. Tropical volcanic soils display variable capacities of pollutant retention: CLD is less available and more persistent in andosol than in nitisol. The impact of soil type on CLD bioavailability to hens was tested through a relative bioavailability study. The deposition of CLD in egg yolk and in abdominal fat was measured in 42 individually housed laying hens fed with diets containing graded levels of CLD from polluted andosol, nitisol, or spiked oil during 23 days. Within each ingested matrix, the concentration of CLD in yolk and in abdominal fat linearly increased with the amount of ingested CLD (P < 0.001). However, the response to andosol diets and to nitisol diets was not different from the response to oil diets (P > 0.1), indicating that CLD was equally bioavailable to laying hens, irrespective of the matrix. This suggests that the hen’s gastrointestinal tract efficiently extracts CLD from the two tropical volcanic soils, regardless of their retention capacity. Thus, hens reared on polluted soils with CLD may lay contaminated eggs.

Concepts: Egg, Digestive system, Pollution, Chicken, Egg white, Egg yolk, Lecithin, Hen


Eggs or egg-based foods, either raw or undercooked, have been identified as vehicles of Salmonella outbreaks. The low numbers of Salmonella organisms in eggs makes it difficult to detect them in frequency studies. The nested-PCR (n-PCR) technique shows more sensitivity and specificity than bacteriological culture methods (BCMs). A preenrichment method followed by enrichment and n-PCR is a good alternative for the investigation of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in eggs. A total of 2,650 chicken eggs representing five commercial brands were purchased from 10 grocery stores. Ten eggs of each brand were combined in order to obtain 265 pooled samples (53 per brand). The shells and yolks of 100 pooled samples were analyzed for Salmonella, while the shells of 65 pooled samples were analyzed for L. monocytogenes, using BCM and a combined method of enrichment and n-PCR (CM-n-PCR). Sixteen eggshell pooled samples tested positive for Salmonella by CM-n-PCR, compared with only two by BCM. Three egg yolk pooled samples tested positive for this pathogen by CM-n-PCR; none tested positive by BCM. Three eggshell pooled samples tested positive for L. monocytogenes by CM-n-PCR and none by BCM. In Mexico, as in other countries, official methods for detection of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes in foods are based on standard bacteriological culture techniques. The inclusion of more sensitive methods such as the one used in the present investigation would increase the probability of detecting positive samples, particularly in those foods in which a very low number of cells is expected.

Concepts: Egg, Type I and type II errors, Sensitivity and specificity, Chicken, Lutein, Listeria monocytogenes, Egg white, Egg yolk


Dietary egg white protein (EWP) decreases serum cholesterol levels. We previously showed that EWP decreased cholesterol absorption in the intestine. Rats subjected to permanent lymph duct cannulation were used to investigate the effects of dietary EWP on lipid transport. They were fed diets with 20% EWP and casein, and their lymph was collected to quantify lymphatic lipid levels. Dietary EWP decreased lymphatic cholesterol transport compared with casein. We previously showed that EWP excluded cholesterol from bile acid micelles. Therefore, we prepared pepsin-hydrolyzed EWP and casein. EWP was not completely digested. Ovalbumin, which is the most abundant protein in EWP, showed resistance to digestion by pepsin. Here we investigated the effects of EWP pepsin hydrolysate (EWP-ph) on cholesterol micellar solubility, cholesterol transfer from the micellar to the oil phase, water-holding capacity (WHC), settling volume in water (SV), and relative viscosity and compared them with the effects of casein pepsin hydrolysate (C-ph). EWP-ph significantly decreased the micellar solubility and transfer rate and increased the WHC, SV, and relative viscosity compared with C-ph. Moreover, the pepsin hydrolysate of ovalbumin, a major protein in EWP, played a role in decreasing cholesterol micellar solubility and leading to the inhibition of cholesterol absorption. In conclusion, dietary EWP decreased cholesterol intestinal absorption by exerting combined effects of these physicochemical properties in the gut.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Protein, Nutrition, Liver, Bile, Small intestine, Digestion, Egg white


The in vitro anti-denaturation and anti-hyaluronidase activities of Impatiens parviflora extracts and isolated galactolipids (MGDG-1, DGDG-1) were investigated. This is the first report on these compounds in I. parviflora. All extracts showed anti-hyaluronidase activity, but only methanolic extract from fresh leaves exhibited significant activity against heat-induced denaturation of BSA in a dose-dependent manner. At 500 μg/mL, the extract and the reference drug showed 79.05% and 99.81% inhibition of protein denaturation, respectively. These results indicate that fresh leaves of I. parviflora may be beneficial in inflammatory conditions, especially those associated with protein denaturation, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The study revealed that only MGDG-1 showed weak activity in anti-denaturation assay but both galactolipids were potent inhibitors of hyaluronidase. MGDG-1 completely inhibited the enzyme activity at the concentration of 127.9 μg/mL. These results indicate the potential of galactolipids in the treatment of diseases associated with the loss of hyaluronic acid.

Concepts: Protein, Enzyme, Protein folding, Rheumatoid arthritis, Enzyme inhibitor, Quaternary structure, Denaturation, Egg white


The contribution of dietary, mobilized, or newly synthesized fatty acids in yolk formation at different periods of egg production was determined. In an initial experiment, a single dose of (13)C-linoleic acid was administered to pullets at the onset of egg production and their presence in follicles determined over the subsequent 10 days. In a second experiment, pullets were fed a daily 15 mg dose of U-(13)C-glucose beginning 2 wk prior to sexual maturity through the end of the experimental period. A 50 mg meal of U-(13)C-linoleic acid was orally administered approximately 10 d prior to sexual maturity (defined as first egg) representing body linoleic acid. Upon each hen’s first egg, each bird received a 25 mg meal of (2)D31-linoleic acid representing dietary linoleic acid. All eggs were collected for the next 10 days. The incorporation of labeled linoleic acid and palmitic acid in egg yolk was then determined using GC-MS. This process was repeated at peak production and at 45 wk of age. At sexual maturity, the deposition of labeled palmitic acid in the yolk was higher compared with its deposition at peak production and 45 wk of age. The deposition of both (13)C- and (2)D31-linoleic acid increased with hen age. These results suggest that dietary and tissue linoleic acid is utilized to a greater extent in older hens and that lipogenesis (synthesis of palmitic acid) plays a larger role at sexual maturity in the young hen.

Concepts: Fatty acid, Fatty acids, Egg, Chicken, Lutein, Linoleic acid, Egg white, Egg yolk


Food safety of table eggs is vital since many pathogens can contaminate the unfertilized egg, leading to increased risk of foodborne illness for consumers. The eggshell cuticle is the first line of defense to restrict the entry of egg-associated pathogens, such as Salmonella Enteritidis. The thickness and completeness of coverage of the cuticle layer are heritable traits that are strongly associated with egg resistance to bacterial penetration. The present study characterizes the chemical composition of the eggshell cuticle and structure of pore plugs from table eggs. Eggs collected from both brown and white egg laying Lohmann flocks (early, mid, and late lay) were either unwashed or washed. Pore plugs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and elemental composition was determined using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). SEM observations confirmed that the plug formed by the cuticle layer within the eggshell pore remains firmly lodged throughout the commercial washing process. The eggshell thickness and cuticle pore length visualized in brown eggs was significantly higher than in white eggs in hens of all ages. EDS analysis revealed that the pore inner surface was enriched in phosphorus and chemically different from the surrounding bulk eggshell mineral. Detailed assessment of the cuticle chemical composition was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Washing of eggs removed cuticle from the eggshell surface. There was a trend of lower cuticle coverage with increasing hen age for white eggs. A significant reduction in the amount of proteins and phosphates and polysaccharides was observed in the cuticle of brown unwashed eggs with hen age. In white unwashed eggs, amides and lipids decreased with hen age; by contrast, the amount of sulfate was highest at mid-lay. The results from our research will assist selective breeding programs that target cuticle integrity and pore plug stability to enhance egg resistance to pathogen penetration and improve food safety.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Bacteria, Chicken, Scanning electron microscope, Salmonella, Fourier transform spectroscopy, Foodborne illness, Egg white