Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Duration


Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) is the therapeutic application of extreme cold air for a short duration. Minimal evidence is available for determining optimal exposure time.

Concepts: Common cold, Duration, Shutter speed, Rugby league


Learned vocalizations are a crucial acoustic biosignal conveying individual traits in many species. Songbirds learn song patterns by listening to a tutor song and performing vocal practice during a sensitive developmental period. However, when and how individual differences in song patterns develop remain unknown. Here, we report that individual differences in vocal output exist even at the earliest song development stage, called subsong. Experiments involving the manipulation of both breeding pairs and song tutoring conditions revealed that the parental pair combination contributes to generating familial differences in syllable duration and variability in the subsong of offspring. Furthermore, after deafening, juveniles immediately changed their subsong by shortening the syllable durations but maintained the individual variability of their subsong temporal patterns, suggesting both auditory-sensitive modification and independent intrinsic regulation of vocal output. These results indicate that the temporal patterns of subsong are not merely disordered vocalization but are regulated by familial bias with sensitivity to auditory feedback, thus generating individual variability at the initiation of vocal development.

Concepts: Learning, Developmental psychology, Feedback, Regulation, Intelligence, Human development, Duration, Tutor


The associations between duration of second stage of labor, pushing time and risk of adverse neonatal outcomes are not fully established. Therefore, we aimed to examine such relationships.

Concepts: Time, Cohort study, Cohort, Duration, Henri Bergson


The study aimed to identify the influence of prior knowledge of exercise duration associated with initial information about momentary match status (losing or winning) on the pacing behaviour displayed during soccer game-based activities. Twenty semi-professional male players participated in four game scenarios divided in two sessions. In the first game scenario, players were not informed about the time duration or initial match status. In the second, players were only informed they would be required to play a small-sided game for 12 minutes. In the third, players were told they would play a small-sided game for 12 minutes and that one of the teams was winning 2 to 0. Finally, in the fourth game scenario, players were instructed they would play a small-sided game for 12 minutes and the score lines used at the start of the previous game scenario were reversed. The results showed a tendency for the unknown task duration to elicit greater physical responses in all studied variables, compared with knowing the task duration. Knowing the task duration and starting the game winning or losing did not affect the players' activity profile between the two conditions. Thus, during small-sided soccer games, knowledge (or not) about the exercise duration alters the pacing behaviour of the players. Moreover, short and undisclosed-length exercise durations resulted in the adoption of more aggressive pacing strategies, characterised by higher initial exercise intensities. Furthermore, previous information on match status does not seem to interfere with pacing patterns if the players are aware of the exercise duration. Coaches may use knowledge of exercise duration to manipulate the small-sided games' demands.

Concepts: English-language films, Activity, Players, Duration, Game, Player, The Players, The Unknown


This paper investigates the emergence of lexicalized effects of word usage on word duration by looking at parallel changes in usage and duration over 130years in New Zealand English. Previous research has found that frequent words are shorter, informative words are longer, and words in utterance-final position are also longer. It has also been argued that some of these patterns are not simply online adjustments, but are incorporated into lexical representations. While these studies tend to focus on the synchronic aspects of such patterns, our corpus shows that word-usage patterns and word durations are not static over time. Many words change in duration and also change with respect to frequency, informativity and likelihood of occurring utterance-finally. Analysis of changing word durations over this time period shows substantial patterns of co-adaptation between word usage and word durations. Words that are increasing in frequency are becoming shorter. Words that are increasing/decreasing in informativity show a change in the same direction in duration (e.g. increasing informativity is associated with increasing duration). And words that are increasingly appearing utterance-finally are lengthening. These effects exist independently of the local effects of the predictors. For example, words that are increasing utterance-finally lengthen in all positions, including utterance-medially. We show that these results are compatible with a number of different views about lexical representations, but they cannot be explained without reference to a production-perception loop that allows speakers to update their representations dynamically on the basis of their experience.

Concepts: Word, New Zealand, Change, Duration, Lexeme, Periodization, Nobody Knows


IMPORTANCE Sleep duration and media use (ie, computer use and television viewing) have important implications for the health and well-being of children. Population data suggest that shorter sleep duration and excessive screen time are growing problems among children and could be interacting issues. OBJECTIVE To examine whether bidirectional relationships exist between sleep duration and media use among children, and whether these associations are moderated by child- and household-related factors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cohort study of a representative sample of 3427 Australian children (4-5 years of age at baseline [51.2% male children]), obtained from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Data were available from 3 waves (2004, 2006, and 2008) when children were 4, 6, and 8 years of age, respectively. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Sleep duration and media use. RESULTS Bidirectional relationships were observed between sleep duration and media use; for instance, total media use at 4 years of age was significantly associated with sleep duration at 6 years of age (β = -0.06 [95% CI, -0.10 to -0.02]), with media use at 6 years of age predicting sleep duration at 8 years of age (β = -0.06 [95% CI, -0.11 to -0.02]). Sleep duration at 4 years of age was associated with media use at 6 years of age (β = -0.10 [95% CI, -0.14 to -0.05]), with sleep duration at 6 years of age predicting media use at 8 years of age (β = -0.08 [95% CI, -0.13 to -0.03]). Several of these bidirectional relationships varied by socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The results supported the hypotheses that bidirectional relationships exist between sleep duration and media use among children. These findings are important given recent population trends for increased media use and shorter sleep durations among children.

Concepts: Scientific method, Cohort study, Longitudinal study, Sociology, Child, Childhood, Hypothesis, Duration


The primary objectives of this research were to describe the indications for mechanical ventilation, the duration of mechanical ventilation and probability of survival in dogs and cats with respiratory failure induced by the Australian paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus).

Concepts: Parasites, Pulmonology, Tick, Acari, Ixodes, Duration, Ixodes holocyclus, Tick paralysis


In any sport, successful performance requires a planned approach to training and recovery. While sleep is recognized as an essential component of this approach, the amount and quality of sleep routinely obtained by elite athletes has not been systematically evaluated. Data were collected from 70 nationally ranked athletes from seven different sports. Athletes wore wrist activity monitors and completed self-report sleep/training diaries for 2 weeks during normal training. The athletes also recorded their fatigue level prior to each training session using a 7-point scale. On average, the athletes spent 08:18 ± 01:12 h in bed, fell asleep at 23:06 ± 01:12 h, woke at 6:48 ± 01:30 h and obtained 06:30 ± 01:24 h of sleep per night. There was a marked difference in the athletes' sleep/wake behaviour on training days and rest days. Linear mixed model analyses revealed that on nights prior to training days, time spent in bed was significantly shorter (p = 0.001), sleep onset and offset times were significantly earlier (p < 0.001) and the amount of sleep obtained was significantly less (p = 0.001), than on nights prior to rest days. Moreover, there was a significant effect of sleep duration on pre-training fatigue levels (p ≤ 0.01). Specifically, shorter sleep durations were associated with higher levels of pre-training fatigue. Taken together, these findings suggest that the amount of sleep an elite athlete obtains is dictated by their training schedule. In particular, early morning starts reduce sleep duration and increase pre-training fatigue levels. When designing schedules, coaches should be aware of the implications of the timing of training sessions for sleep and fatigue. In cases where early morning starts are unavoidable, countermeasures for minimizing sleep loss - such as strategic napping during the day and correct sleep hygiene practices at night - should be considered.

Concepts: Sleep, Sleep deprivation, Somnolence, Common cold, Duration, Sleep hygiene, Bed


Water immersion is increasingly being used by elite athletes seeking to minimize fatigue and accelerate post-exercise recovery. Accelerated short-term (hours to days) recovery may improve competition performance, allow greater training loads or enhance the effect of a given training load. However, the optimal water immersion protocols to assist short-term recovery of performance still remain unclear. This article will review the water immersion recovery protocols investigated in the literature, their effects on performance recovery, briefly outline the potential mechanisms involved and provide practical recommendations for their use by athletes. For the purposes of this review, water immersion has been divided into four techniques according to water temperature: cold water immersion (CWI; ≤20 °C), hot water immersion (HWI; ≥36 °C), contrast water therapy (CWT; alternating CWI and HWI) and thermoneutral water immersion (TWI; >20 to <36 °C). Numerous articles have reported that CWI can enhance recovery of performance in a variety of sports, with immersion in 10-15 °C water for 5-15 min duration appearing to be most effective at accelerating performance recovery. However, the optimal CWI duration may depend on the water temperature, and the time between CWI and the subsequent exercise bout appears to influence the effect on performance. The few studies examining the effect of post-exercise HWI on subsequent performance have reported conflicting findings; therefore the effect of HWI on performance recovery is unclear. CWT is most likely to enhance performance recovery when equal time is spent in hot and cold water, individual immersion durations are short (~1 min) and the total immersion duration is up to approximately 15 min. A dose-response relationship between CWT duration and recovery of exercise performance is unlikely to exist. Some articles that have reported CWT to not enhance performance recovery have had methodological issues, such as failing to detect a decrease in performance in control trials, not performing full-body immersion, or using hot showers instead of pools. TWI has been investigated as both a control to determine the effect of water temperature on performance recovery, and as an intervention itself. However, due to conflicting findings it is uncertain whether TWI improves recovery of subsequent exercise performance. Both CWI and CWT appear likely to assist recovery of exercise performance more than HWI and TWI; however, it is unclear which technique is most effective. While the literature on the use of water immersion for recovery of exercise performance is increasing, further research is required to obtain a more complete understanding of the effects on performance.

Concepts: Time, Better, Effect, Effectiveness, Acceleration, Common cold, Duration, Dose-response relationship


Despite the perceived importance of sleep for elite footballers, descriptions of the duration and quality of sleep, especially following match play, are limited. Moreover, recovery responses following sleep loss remain unclear. Accordingly, the present study examined the subjective sleep and recovery responses of elite footballers across training days (TD) and both day and night matches (DM and NM). Sixteen top division European players from three clubs completed a subjective online questionnaire twice a day for 21 days during the season. Subjective recall of sleep variables (duration, onset latency, time of wake/sleep, wake episode duration), a range of perceptual variables related to recovery, mood, performance and internal training loads and non-exercise stressors were collected. Players reported significantly reduced sleep durations for NM compared to DM (-157 min) and TD (-181 min). In addition, sleep restfulness (SR; arbitrary scale 1 = very restful, 5 = not at all restful) and perceived recovery (PR; acute recovery and stress scale 0 = not recovered at all, 6 = fully recovered) were significantly poorer following NM than both TD (SR: +2.0, PR: -2.6), and DM (SR: +1.5; PR: -1.5). These results suggest that reduced sleep quantity and quality and reduced PR are mainly evident following NM in elite players.

Concepts: Time, Sleep deprivation, Perception, Unsolved problems in neuroscience, Duration