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Concept: Da Nang


A two-dimensional model was used to reconstruct scenarios related to the mass fish death phenomenon that occurred along the Central Coast of Vietnam. First, a Weather Research Forecasting model was used to simulate the wind field during April 2016, and was then used as an input to the two-dimensional (2D) model. Second, the calibration of the 2D model showed high conformity in both the phases and amplitude between the simulated and observed water levels. The simulation results of two scenarios, S1 and S2, were highly recommended for explaining the mass fish death phenomenon that occurred along the coast from Ha Tinh Province to Thua Thien-Hue Province. The calculated results of water quality data combined with the toxic concentration measured in fish will ultimately enable the simulation of the delimiting pollution zones and will facilitate response solutions when a similar phenomenon occurs in the future.

Concepts: Future, Simulation, Computer graphics, Vietnam, Da Nang, Provinces of Vietnam, Thua Thien-Hue Province, Ha Tinh Province


Heiman Wertheim and colleagues describe the launch and impact of VINARES, an initiative to strengthen antimicrobial stewardship in Vietnam.

Concepts: Vietnam, Vietnam War, Da Nang, Cambodia, South Vietnam, History of Vietnam, Vietnamese people, Religion in Vietnam


Scrub typhus is a rickettsiosis which is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and occurs throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Molecular diagnosis of rickettsioses using eschar swabs has recently emerged, and may be very useful for the diagnosis of these diseases in tropical settings.

Concepts: Vietnam, Da Nang, Asia-Pacific, Scrub typhus, Orientia tsutsugamushi


Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654) were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs) (17.4%, n = 174/1000) and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575) than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; p<0.001). Coinfection with HIV was seen in 28% of HBV-infected IDUs (n = 49/174) and 15.2% of commercial sex workers (CSWs; n = 15/99). HCV infection was present in 89.8% of the HBV-HIV coinfected IDUs (n = 44/49) and 40% of HBV-HIV coinfected CSWs (n = 16/40). Anti-HDV was detected in 10.7% (n = 34/318) of HBsAg positive individuals. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV S gene (n = 187) showed a predominance of genotype B4 (82.6%); genotypes C1 (14.6%), B2 (2.7%) and C5 (0.5%) were also identified. The precore mutation G1896A was identified in 35% of all specimens, and was more frequently observed in genotype B (41%) than genotype C (3%; p<0.0001). In the immunodominant 'a' region of the surface gene, point mutations were identified in 31% (n = 58/187) of sequences, and 2.2% (n = 4/187) and 5.3% (n = 10/187) specimens contained the major vaccine escape mutations G145A/R and P120L/Q/S/T, respectively. 368 HBsAg positive individuals were genotyped for the IL28B SNP rs12979860 and no significant association between the IL28B SNP and clearance of HBsAg, HBV viral load or HBeAg was observed. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV infection in Viet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for hepatitis-related morbidity and development of effective management strategies.

Concepts: HIV, DNA, Gene, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, Vietnam, Da Nang, Provinces of Vietnam


Breastfeeding is recognized as the single most cost-effective intervention to reduce child morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have explored perceived barriers to breastfeeding and factors associated with breastfeeding intent among mothers of newborn babies in Viet Nam. We conducted a study to assess breastfeeding initiation rates, intent to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months or more and perceived barriers to breastfeed among mothers of newborn babies in Da Nang, Viet Nam.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Infant, Breastfeeding, Baby bottle, Pacifier, Vietnam, Da Nang


Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. “Nam Dan”) is one of the most valuable crops in agricultural production in Nghe An province (Vietnam). Our previous study revealed that extract of the cyanobacterium strain Nostoc calcicola HN9 expressed positive effect on growth and development, and raised soybean productivity (Tran et al. in Proceeding of Vietnam national conference of research on biology, Da Nang, 2016). We hypothesized that N. calcicola HN9 would improve the defense responses of G. max cv. “Nam Dan” to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch)-a serious pest of leguminous crops.

Concepts: Soybean, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, Vietnam War, Da Nang, Provinces of Vietnam, Nghe An Province, Vinh


We conducted this study to analyse factors related to reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among female migrant workers (FMWs) in four industrial zones across four regions in Vietnam. A analytical cross-sectional study was implemented with FMWs aged between 18-49 years old in four industrial zones in Hanoi, Da Nang, Ho Chi Minh city (HCM) and Binh Duong, Vietnam. Stratified sampling was used to select about 6400 married and unmarried FMWs. Cases were identified through self-reporting of female migrants concerning RTIs symtoms experienced in the 1 year prior to the study. Based on multivariate logistic regression results, we suggested that about 32% of FMWs reported having RTIs problems (27.6% in Hanoi, 30.3% in Danang, 36% in HCMC, and 32.9% in Binhduong). We also identified different factors related to RTIs among different study sites. Marital status, level of education, social-economic status and numbers of migration were important related factors of RTIs.

Concepts: Reproductive system, Ho Chi Minh, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Vietnam War, Da Nang, South Vietnam, Provinces of Vietnam


4-month-old twins were diagnosed with X-pert MTB/RIF® confirmed tuberculosis (TB)[…].

Concepts: Vietnam, Vietnam War, Da Nang, Cambodia, South Vietnam, History of Vietnam


The molecular basis of β-thalassemia (β-thal) mutations in North and in South Vietnam have been described during the past 15 years, whereas limited data were available concerning the central area of the country. In this study, we describe the molecular characterization and frequency of β-globin gene mutations in the Thua Thien Hue Province of Central Vietnam as the result of a first survey conducted in 22 transfusion-dependent patients, and four unrelated heterozygotes. Nine different known mutations were identified (seven of the β(0) and two of the β(+) type) in a total of 48 chromosomes. The most common was codon 26 (G>A) or Hb E (HBB: c.79 G>A) accounting for 29.2% of the total studied chromosomes, followed by codon 17 (A>T) (HBB: c.52 A>T) (25.0%), and codons 41/42 (-TTCT) (HBB: c.126_129delCTTT) (18.8%). Other mutations with appreciable frequencies (6.3-8.3%) were IVS-I-1 (G>T) (HBB: c.92+1 G>T), codon 26 (G>T) (HBB: c.79 G>T) and codons 71/72 (+A) (HBB: c.216_217insA). Relatively rarer (2.0%) were the promoter -28 (A>G) (HBB: c.78 A>G) mutation, the codon 95 (+A) (HBB: c.287_288insA), which is reported only in the Vietnamese, and the codons 14/15 (+G) (HBB: c.45_46insG) mutation, thus far observed only in Thailand. Results are relevant for implementing appropriate measures for β-thal prevention and control in the region as well as in the whole country.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Mutation, Vietnam, Da Nang, Thua Thien-Hue Province, Perfume River


We surveyed the prevalence of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Cryptosporidium spp in individuals with and without gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms residing in and around Da Nang city, Vietnam. Fecal samples were collected from children (n = 100) and adults (n = 80) with GI symptoms and from healthy individuals (n = 88) reporting no GI symptoms. Parasite detection was performed by multiplex real-time PCR. Overall, except for G. duodenalis, we found a low prevalence (<5%) of D. fragilis and E. dispar and no detection of E. histolytica and C. spp in all participants with GI symptoms. Specifically for D. fragilis this contrasts with findings in European populations of children with GI symptoms showing prevalence up to 73%. Moreover, our results indicate that the prevalence of G. duodenalis is higher in patients with GI symptoms compared to asymptomatic individuals and this difference is most obvious in young patients.

Concepts: Parasites, Entamoeba histolytica, Dientamoeba fragilis, Da Nang, Amoebozoa, Entamoeba, Metamonads