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Concept: Currency


Six-year-old Fatou was exposed to Ebola at her uncle’s funeral in Forécariah, a district along Guinea’s border with Sierra Leone where about 50% of all Guinea’s Ebola cases since February 2015 have occurred.(1) Fatou’s entire family was registered as contacts to be monitored for the next 21 days, during which the disease could develop. A contact tracer began making daily visits to check their temperatures and evaluate them for symptoms. For the first few days, everything seemed fine, but on the fifth day, Fatou was found to have fever and vomiting. A response team was dispatched to bring her to . . .

Concepts: West Africa, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Freetown, Economic Community of West African States, Currency, Guinea, Susu people


In this study we report the underlying reasons to why bacteria are present on banknotes and coins. Despite the use of credit cards, mobile phone apps, near-field-communication systems, and cryptocurrencies such as bitcoins which are replacing the use of hard currencies, cash exchanges still make up a significant means of exchange for a wide range of purchases. The literature is awash with data that highlights that both coins and banknotes are frequently identified as fomites for a wide range of microorganisms. However, most of these publications fail to provide any insight into the extent to which bacteria adhere and persist on money. We treated the various currencies used in this study as microcosms, and the bacterial loading from human hands as the corresponding microbiome. We show that the substrate from which banknotes are produced have a significant influence on both the survival and adherence of bacteria to banknotes. Smooth, polymer surfaces provide a poor means of adherence and survival, while coarser and more fibrous surfaces provide strong bacterial adherence and an environment to survive on. Coins were found to be strongly inhibitory to bacteria with a relatively rapid decline in survival on almost all coin surfaces tested. The inhibitory influence of coins was demonstrated through the use of antimicrobial disks made from coins. Despite the toxic effects of coins on many bacteria, bacteria do have the ability to adapt to the presence of coins in their environment which goes some way to explain the persistent presence of low levels of bacteria on coins in circulation.

Concepts: Bacteria, Toxicity, Coin, Money, Numismatics, Currency, Commodity money, Legal tender


Digital currencies have emerged as a new fascinating phenomenon in the financial markets. Recent events on the most popular of the digital currencies - BitCoin - have risen crucial questions about behavior of its exchange rates and they offer a field to study dynamics of the market which consists practically only of speculative traders with no fundamentalists as there is no fundamental value to the currency. In the paper, we connect two phenomena of the latest years - digital currencies, namely BitCoin, and search queries on Google Trends and Wikipedia - and study their relationship. We show that not only are the search queries and the prices connected but there also exists a pronounced asymmetry between the effect of an increased interest in the currency while being above or below its trend value.

Concepts: Value, World Wide Web, Stock market, History of the Internet, Store of value, United States dollar, Currency, Exchange rate


The UK’s recent move to polymer banknotes has seen some of the currently used fingermark enhancement techniques for currency potentially become redundant, due to the surface characteristics of the polymer substrates. Possessing a non-porous surface with some semi-porous properties, alternate processes are required for polymer banknotes. This preliminary investigation explored the recovery of fingermarks from polymer notes via vacuum metal deposition using elemental copper. The study successfully demonstrated that fresh latent fingermarks, from an individual donor, could be clearly developed and imaged in the near infrared. By varying the deposition thickness of the copper, the contrast between the fingermark minutiae and the substrate could be readily optimised. Where the deposition thickness was thin enough to be visually indistinguishable, forensic gelatin lifters could be used to lift the fingermarks. These lifts could then be treated with rubeanic acid to produce a visually distinguishable mark. The technique has shown enough promise that it could be effectively utilised on other semi- and non-porous substrates.

Concepts: Chemical element, United Kingdom, Aluminium, Infrared, Currency, Polymer banknote, Banknotes, Banknote


Bitcoin, the first electronic payment system, is becoming a popular currency. We provide a statistical analysis of the log-returns of the exchange rate of Bitcoin versus the United States Dollar. Fifteen of the most popular parametric distributions in finance are fitted to the log-returns. The generalized hyperbolic distribution is shown to give the best fit. Predictions are given for future values of the exchange rate.

Concepts: Regression analysis, United States, Actuarial science, Money, United States dollar, Foreign exchange market, Currency, Electronic commerce


There is growing interest in the use of critical slowing down and critical fluctuations as early warning signals for critical transitions in different complex systems. However, while some studies found them effective, others found the opposite. In this paper, we investigated why this might be so, by testing three commonly used indicators: lag-1 autocorrelation, variance, and low-frequency power spectrum at anticipating critical transitions in the very-high-frequency time series data of the Australian Dollar-Japanese Yen and Swiss Franc-Japanese Yen exchange rates. Besides testing rising trends in these indicators at a strict level of confidence using the Kendall-tau test, we also required statistically significant early warning signals to be concurrent in the three indicators, which must rise to appreciable values. We then found for our data set the optimum parameters for discovering critical transitions, and showed that the set of critical transitions found is generally insensitive to variations in the parameters. Suspecting that negative results in the literature are the results of low data frequencies, we created time series with time intervals over three orders of magnitude from the raw data, and tested them for early warning signals. Early warning signals can be reliably found only if the time interval of the data is shorter than the time scale of critical transitions in our complex system of interest. Finally, we compared the set of time windows with statistically significant early warning signals with the set of time windows followed by large movements, to conclude that the early warning signals indeed provide reliable information on impending critical transitions. This reliability becomes more compelling statistically the more events we test.

Concepts: Statistics, Sociology, Data, Spectral density, Time series, Complex system, Foreign exchange market, Currency


In this study, we assess the dynamic evolution of short-term correlation, long-term cointegration and Error Correction Model (hereafter referred to as ECM)-based long-term Granger causality between each pair of US, UK, and Eurozone stock markets from 1980 to 2015 using the rolling-window technique. A comparative analysis of pairwise dynamic integration and causality of stock markets, measured in common and domestic currency terms, is conducted to evaluate comprehensively how exchange rate fluctuations affect the time-varying integration among the S&P 500, FTSE 100 and EURO STOXX 50 indices. The results obtained show that the dynamic correlation, cointegration and ECM-based long-run Granger causality vary significantly over the whole sample period. The degree of dynamic correlation and cointegration between pairs of stock markets rises in periods of high volatility and uncertainty, especially under the influence of economic, financial and political shocks. Meanwhile, we observe the weaker and decreasing correlation and cointegration among the three developed stock markets during the recovery periods. Interestingly, the most persistent and significant cointegration among the three developed stock markets exists during the 2007-09 global financial crisis. Finally, the exchange rate fluctuations, also influence the dynamic integration and causality between all pairs of stock indices, with that influence increasing under the local currency terms. Our results suggest that the potential for diversifying risk by investing in the US, UK and Eurozone stock markets is limited during the periods of economic, financial and political shocks.

Concepts: Economics, United Kingdom, Stock market, Arbitrage, United States dollar, Currency, Exchange rate, Central bank


In this paper, we study data from financial markets, using the normalised Mutual Information Rate. We show how to use it to infer the underlying network structure of interrelations in the foreign currency exchange rates and stock indices of 15 currency areas. We first present the mathematical method and discuss its computational aspects, and apply it to artificial data from chaotic dynamics and to correlated normal-variates data. We then apply the method to infer the structure of the financial system from the time-series of currency exchange rates and stock indices. In particular, we study and reveal the interrelations among the various foreign currency exchange rates and stock indices in two separate networks, of which we also study their structural properties. Our results show that both inferred networks are small-world networks, sharing similar properties and having differences in terms of assortativity. Importantly, our work shows that global economies tend to connect with other economies world-wide, rather than creating small groups of local economies. Finally, the consistent interrelations depicted among the 15 currency areas are further supported by a discussion from the viewpoint of economics.

Concepts: Economics, Logic, Reasoning, Stock market, Inference, Debt, Currency, Exchange rate


In this work we extend a well-known model from arrested physical systems, and employ it in order to efficiently depict different currency pairs of foreign exchange market price fluctuation distributions. We consider the exchange rate price in the time range between 2010 and 2016 at yearly time intervals and resolved at one minute frequency. We then fit the experimental datasets with this model, and find significant qualitative symmetry between price fluctuation distributions from the currency market, and the ones belonging to colloidal particles position in arrested states. The main contribution of this paper is a well-known physical model that does not necessarily assume the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) restrictive condition.

Concepts: United States dollar, Foreign exchange market, Currency, Bretton Woods system, Exchange rate, Central bank, Currency pair, World currency


Scanning of dosimeters facilitates dose distribution measurements with fine spatial resolutions. This paper presents a method of conversion of the scanning results to water-dose profiles and provides an experimental verification.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Economics, Test method, Units of measurement, Printing, Foreign exchange market, Currency