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Concept: Confectionery


Polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer (PVAcVL) is a useful component of gum base for chewing gum production. The safety of PVAcVL was examined in a 4-week and a 13-week oral toxicity study in rats. Finely powdered PVAcVL was administred with the diet at levels of 1.25, 2.0 and 5% in the 4-week study and 1.25, 2.5 and 5% in the 13-week study. There were no treatment related effects on mortality, bodyweight gains feed efficiency, ophthalmoscopic findings, hematological and clinical chemical parameters, neurobehavioral observations as well as gross and histopathological changes of standard organs and tissues. The highest dose tested in the 13-week study (3783 and 4396 mg/kg bw/d for males and females, respectively) proved to be a NOAEL.

Concepts: Acetic acid, Polyvinyl alcohol, Acetates, Chewing gum, Gum, Gum base, Confectionery, Bubblegum


Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight.

Concepts: Psychology, Nutrition, Definition, Extensional definition, Perception, Chocolate chip cookie, Confectionery, Chocolate chip


We designed a fabrication technique able to replicate microstructures in soft silicone materials (E < 1 kPa). Sugar-based 'hard candy' recipes from the confectionery industry were modified to be compatible with silicone processing conditions, and used as templates for replica molding. Microstructures fabricated in soft silicones can then be easily released by dissolving the template in water. We anticipate that this technique will be of particular importance in replicating physiologically soft, microstructured environments for cell culture, and demonstrate a first application in which intrinsically soft microstructures are used to measure forces generated by fibroblast-laden contractile tissues.

Concepts: Cell, Water, Materials science, Silicone, Polydimethylsiloxane, Template, Confectionery, Candy


Due to recent large outbreaks, peanuts have been considered a product of potential risk for Salmonella. Usually, peanut products show a low water activity (aw) and high fat content, which contribute to increasing the thermal resistance and survival of Salmonella. This study evaluated the long-term kinetics of Salmonella survival on different peanut products under storage at 28°C for 420 days. Samples of raw in-shell peanuts (aw = 0.29), roasted peanuts (aw = 0.39), unblanched peanut kernel (aw = 0.54), peanut brittle (aw = 0.30), paçoca (aw = 0.40) and pé-de-moça (aw = 0.68) were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 at two inoculum levels (3 and 6 log cfu/ g). The Salmonella behavior was influenced (p<0.05) by aw, lipid, carbohydrate and protein content. In most cases for both inoculum levels, the greatest reductions were seen after the first two weeks of storage, followed by a slower decline phase. The lowest reductions were verified in paçoca and roasted peanuts, with counts of 1.01 and 0.87 log cfu/ g at low inoculum level and 2.53 and 3.82 log cfu/ g at high inoculum level at the end of the storage time. The highest loss of viability was observed in pé-de-moça, with absence of Salmonella in 10-g after 180 days at low inoculum level. The Weibull model provided a suitable fit to the data (R2≥0.81), with δ value ranging from 0.06 to 49.75 days. Therefore, the results demonstrated that Salmonella survives longer in peanut products, beyond the shelf life (>420 days), especially in products with aw around 0.40.

Concepts: Salmonella enterica, Peanut, Peanuts, Confectionery


Sweeteners in tobacco products may influence use initiation and reinforcement, with special appeal to adolescents. Recent analytical studies of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, snus, dissolvables) detected flavorants identical to those added to confectionary products such as hard candy and chewing gum. However, these studies did not determine the levels of sweeteners. The objective of the present study was to quantify added sweeteners in smokeless tobacco products, a dissolvable product, electronic cigarette liquids and to compare with sweetener levels in confectionary products.

Concepts: Tobacco, Cigarette, Nicotine, Dipping tobacco, Snuff, Chewing tobacco, Chewing gum, Confectionery


This study determined whether consumption of calcium-containing gummies prior to fluoride varnish application enhances plaque fluoride retention and compliance with post-varnish application instructions.

Concepts: Fluoride varnish, Confectionery, Gummi bear, Gummy candies


Many patients with oromandibular dystonia, which is characterized by involuntary masticatory, lower facial, and/or tongue muscle contractions, experience relief of symptoms through sensory tricks such as eating chewing gum or candy. The aim of this study was to identify the factors influencing the effects of splints in patients with oromandibular dystonia.

Concepts: Confectionery


In this research a process and cost model for a xanthan production facility was developed using process simulation software (SuperPro Designer(®)). This work represents a novelty in the field for two reasons. One is that xanthan gum has been produced from several wastes but never from wastewaters from confectionery industries. The other more important is that the aforementioned software, which in intended exclusively for bioprocesses, is used for generating a base case, i.e. starting point for transferring the technology to industrial scales. Previously acquired experimental knowledge about using confectionery wastewaters from five different factories as substitutes for commercially used cultivation medium have been incorporated into the process model in order to obtain an economic viability of implementing such substrates. A lower initial sugar content in the medium based on wastewater (28.41 g/L) compared to the synthetic medium (30.00 g/L) gave a lower xanthan content at the end of cultivation (23.98 and 26.27 g/L, respectively). Although this resulted in somewhat poorer economic parameters, they were still in the range of being an investment of interest. Also the possibility of utilizing a cheap resource (waste) and reducing pollution that would result from its disposal has a positive effect on the environment.

Concepts: Economics, Polysaccharide, Pollution, E number, Waste, Business process modeling, Xanthan gum, Confectionery


Medicated chewing gum tablets (CGTs) represent a unique platform for drug delivery. Loading directly compressible gums with high concentrations of powdered medication, however, results in compacts with hybrid properties between a chewable gum and a brittle tablet. The aim of the present study was to develop textural tests that can identify the point at which CGTs begin to behave like a solid tablet upon drug incorporation. Curcumin (CUR) CGTs made with Health in gum® were prepared with increasing CUR load from 0% to 100% and were characterized for their mechanical properties by a single bite (knife) and a two bites tests. From each test several parameters were extracted and correlated with drug loading. In the single bite test, the change in the resistance of the compacts to plastic deformation was found to give a definitive guide on whether they behave as gums or tablets. A more in depth analysis of the impact of CUR loading on the chewability of the CGTs was provided by the two bites test where CUR loading was found to have a non-linear impact on the mechanical properties of compacts. An upper limit of 10% was found to yield compacts with gum like properties, which were abolished at higher CUR loads. The textural test procedure outlined in this study are expected to assist those involved in the formulation of medicated gums for pharmaceutical applications in making an informed decision on the impact of drug loading on gum behavior before proceeding with clinical testing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Drug, Pharmaceutical drug, All rights reserved, Pharmaceutical formulation, Oral hygiene, Copyright, Confectionery


The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between masticatory performance using a gummy jelly and masticatory movement.

Concepts: Confectionery, Gummi bear