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Concept: Columbus, Ohio

99

Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme-biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence.

Concepts: Time, Game theory, Association football, American football, Chess, Football, Professional sports, Columbus, Ohio

49

Twenty-five to 30 million Americans live with a rare disease (RD) and share challenges unique to RD. The majority of research on RDs has focused on etiology, treatment and care, while the limited health-related quality of life (HRQL) research has been restricted to single RDs, small samples, or non-validated measures. This study reports HRQL among adults with diverse RDs, and compares their scores to those of the U.S. population and people with common chronic health conditions.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Biology, United States, Columbus, Ohio

9

There is limited information on the relationship between football helmet fit and concussion severity.

Concepts: High school, Texas, American football, High School Musical, High school football, Canadian football, Columbus, Ohio

9

The study objective was to examine the nutritional quality of competitive foods and beverages (foods and beverages from vending machines and à la carte foods) available to rural middle school students, before implementation of the US Department of Agriculture’s Smart Snacks in School standards in July 2014. In spring 2014, we audited vending machines and à la carte cafeteria foods and beverages in 8 rural Appalachian middle schools in Virginia. Few schools had vending machines. Few à la carte and vending machine foods met Smart Snacks in School standards (36.5%); however, most beverages did (78.2%). The major challenges to meeting standards were fat and sodium content of foods. Most competitive foods (62.2%) did not meet new standards, and rural schools with limited resources will likely require assistance to fully comply.

Concepts: Nutrition, Middle school, High school, College, School, Columbus, Ohio, Vending machine, Vending machines

8

Many urban youth experiencesignificant and unremitting negative stressors, including those associated with community violence, multigenerational poverty, failing educational systems, substance use, limited avenues for success, health risks, and trauma. Mindfulness instruction improves psychological functioning in a variety of adult populations; research on mindfulness for youth is promising, but has been conducted in limited populations. Informed by implementation science, we evaluated an adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program to ameliorate the negative effects of stress and trauma among low-income, minority, middle school public school students.

Concepts: Psychology, Poverty, Education, High school, Clinical psychology, Secondary school, Teacher, Columbus, Ohio

6

5

The epidemiology of family meals among adults at a population level is poorly characterized and whether living with children impacts this health behaviour is uncertain. We determined the prevalence of family meals among US adults in a mid-western state whose families did and did not include minor children and described how it varied by sociodemographic characteristics.

Concepts: Family, Public health, Family planning, Epidemiology, Disease, Biology, Demography, Columbus, Ohio

2

Knowledge about the specific environmental and practice risks to participants in American intercollegiate football during preseason practices is limited. Identifying risks may mitigate occurrences of exertional heat illness (EHI).

Concepts: Risk, College football, American football, Football, National Football League, Columbus, Ohio, Eddie Cochems, Lists of American football players

2

Bullying is a significant public health issue among middle school-aged youth. Current prevention programs have only a moderate impact. Cell phone text messaging technology (mHealth) can potentially overcome existing challenges, particularly those that are structural (e.g., limited time that teachers can devote to non-educational topics). To date, the description of the development of empirically-based mHealth-delivered bullying prevention programs are lacking in the literature.

Concepts: Public health, Middle school, High school, Mobile phone, Musical form, Text messaging, Instant messaging, Columbus, Ohio

2

There is limited evidence on the efficacy of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for sexual exposures. We sought to determine the factors associated with adherence to treatment and describe the incidence of PEP failures in a Montreal clinic.

Concepts: HIV, United States, California, North America, Columbus, Ohio